Complex learning aims to integrate learners’ knowledge, skills and attitudes and to facilitate the learning transference and elastic application. Complex learning is a sort of holistic-oriented design, by which three common problems in atomistic design, namely, compartmentalization, fragmentation, and the transfer paradox, could be solved. The framework of complex learning contains four elements: designing learning tasks, designing supportive information, designing procedural information, and designing part-task practice. In addition, the framework is matched with six operational sectors, including sequencing task classes, setting performance objectives, analyzing cognitive strategies, analyzing mental models, analyzing cognitive rules, and analyzing prerequisite knowledge. As the nature of complex learning, dynamic recycle and need-based design reflect its instructional characteristics concerning the whole-task learning and appropriate guidance.
- Instructional Design