Effective feedback is a powerful educational intervention to support learning. Hattie and Timperley have developed a feedback model in which they define three different functions and four different levels of feedback. Although the model is widely used in educational practice, there is little known about how the model is used in education nor about the optimal distribution of the different types of feedback. In the current case study, we used an explanatory sequential mixed method design to investigate how lecturers use the model and how its use can be optimized. For this, 349 feedback comments from 22 lecturers were analysed, and 5 feedback experts participated in a focus group interview. The results show that most of the feedback given by the lecturers is task-oriented feedback and that current feedback practices can be improved by focusing more on the combination of feedup, feedback, and feedforward. In addition, results indicate that the level (task, process, self-regulation, person) of the feedback is more difficult to determine before hand and should be tailored to the learning goal. The design of the assessment form plays an important role in this alignment.
- higher education