A fuzzy logic approach to reliable real-time recognition of facial emotions

Kiavash Bahreini, Wim van der Vegt, Wim Westera

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This paper represents our newly developed software for emotion recognition from facial expressions. Besides allowing emotion recognition from image files and recorded video files, it uses webcam data to provide real-time, continuous, and unobtrusive facial emotional expressions. It uses FURIA algorithm for unordered fuzzy rule induction to offer timely and appropriate feedback based on learners’ facial expressions. The main objective of this study was first to validate the use of webcam data for a real-time and accurate analysis of facial expressions in e-learning environments. Second, transform these facial expressions to detected emotional states using the FURIA algorithm. We measured the performance of the software with ten participants, provided them with the same computer-based tasks, requested them a hundred times to mimic specific facial expressions, and recorded all sessions on video. We used the recorded video files to feed our newly developed software. We then used two experts’ opinions to annotate and rate participants’ recorded behaviours and to validate the software’s results. The software provides accurate and reliable results with the overall accuracy of 83.2%, which is comparable to the recognition by humans. This study will help to increase the quality of e-learning.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)18943–18966
JournalMultimedia Tools and Applications
Issue number14
Early online date6 Feb 2019
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2019


  • Emotion recognition
  • Affective computing
  • Software development
  • statistical data analysis
  • fuzzy logic
  • webcam
  • e-learning
  • Fuzzy logic
  • Statistical data analysis
  • E-learning
  • Webcam

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    Westera, W., Georgiadis, K., Saveski, G., van Lankveld, G., Bahreini, K., van der Vegt, W., Berkhout, J., Nyamsuren, E., Kluijfhout, E. & Nadolski, R.


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