A latent time-budget model

Jan De Leeuw, Peter van der Heijden, Peter Verboon

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Time–budgets summarize how the time of objects is distributed over a number of categories. Usually they are collected in object by category matrices with the property that rows of this data matrix add up to one. In this paper we discuss a model for the analysis of time–budgets that used this property. The model approximates the observed time–budgets by weighted sums of a number of latent time–budgets. These latent time–budgets determine the behavior of all objects. Special attention is given to the identification of the model. The model is compared with logcontrast principal component analysis.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-22
JournalStatistica Neerlandica
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1990
Externally publishedYes


  • time-budgets
  • latent structure
  • factor analysis
  • Em-algorithm


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