A Systematic Review on the Conceptualization and Operationalization of Students' Levels of Processing in Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies

Leen Catrysse, David Gijbels, Vincent Donche

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

In educational research, there is a growinginterest in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) toexamine students’ levels of processing. As there is a growinginterest in the use of fMRI, a systematic review was con-ducted to examine how deep and surface levels of processingare operationalized within the neuroscientific field. In addi-tion, we investigated how this operationalization impacts onthe conceptualization of levels of processing within fMRIresearch. A systematic search was conducted within theMEDLINE, PubMed, ERIC, and Web of Science databases,and 25 studies were identified for this review. With regardto the operationalization, the review indicates that levels ofprocessing were examined under highly controlled condi-tions with decontextualized and simplified language stimuli.Analysis of these studies revealed that there is a lack of con-ceptual clarity as, in half of the cases, no theoretical frame-work was explicitly mentioned, and no clear definition wasgiven regarding levels of processing
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)198-210
Number of pages13
JournalMind Brain and Education
Volume13
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2019
Externally publishedYes

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