Board Gender Diversity and Corporate Social Performance in Different Industry Groups: Evidence from China

K Naveed, CL Voinea, Z Ali, F Rauf, C Fratostiteanu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


This paper examines the heterogeneous links between board gender diversity and corporate social performance in different industries across China. OLS regression models are approximated using the data of Chinese industries from 2009 to 2015. Robustness test and two‐stage least square (2SLS) methods are incorporated to cater for robustness and endogeneity. Board gender diversity (BGD) stimulates corporate social performance (CSP) of firms with environmental and social risk exposure regardless of critical mass and directors’ independence. It does so for firms with governance risk exposure while incorporating the critical mass effect and the director’s independence. Overall, the positive effect of BGD is prevalent in different industries at an aggregate level while considering firms with an overall ESG risk exposure. The findings imply that BGD can mitigate the ESG risk exposure in terms of enhancing the CSP and the advantage can be transpired with the inclusion of even one female director (independent or executive) to the board. The study also highlights that BGD enhances CSP in industries with more environmental and social risk exposure while doing so in industries with governance risk exposure after complementation by critical mass and independent director effects.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3142
Number of pages15
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2021


  • Board gender diversity
  • Corporate social performance
  • Critical mass theory
  • Director independence
  • ESG risk exposure
  • Propensity score matching


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