Conclusions: Incomplete Integration

Martijn van der Burg*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterAcademicpeer-review


This study set out to provide insight into the integration of the Netherlands and Northwest Germany into the Napoleonic Empire, through the implementation of Napoleonic governance, distinguishing several phases. This concluding chapter puts the research findings into a larger context. After exploring the collapse and legacy of Napoleonic rule, the successive stages of conquest, incorporation, and integration are reflected upon. Both areas experienced similar tensions between the Napoleonic desire for uniformity and diverse traditions. Either a ‘harsh’ approach or a ‘mild’ approach was chosen, depending on the actors involved and the interaction between core and periphery. Interests and actions were not aligned, and in more extreme cases, there was downright animosity between Napoleonic officials. Therefore, in neither the Netherlands nor Northwest Germany complete integration was achieved. However, there was no definite blueprint for integration, as different groups had conflicting ideas on the desirable level of, and path to, integration. Ultimately, integration was incomplete, but the degree of incompleteness depends on the divergent norms set by the various parties.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationNapoleonic Governance in the Netherlands and Northwest Germany
Subtitle of host publicationConquest, Incorporation, and Integration
PublisherPalgrave Macmillan
Number of pages14
ISBN (Electronic)9783030666583
ISBN (Print)9783030666576
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Publication series

SeriesWar, Culture and Society, 1750-1850


  • Conquest
  • Incorporation
  • Integration
  • Napoleonic governance
  • Restoration


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