Conditions for effective smart learning environments

Rob Koper

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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    Smart learning environments (SLEs) are defined in this paper as physical environments that are enriched with digital, context-aware and adaptive devices, to promote better and faster learning. In order to identify the requirements for ‘better and faster learning’, the idea of Human Learning Interfaces (HLI) is presented, i.e. the set of learning related interaction mechanisms that humans expose to the outside world that can be used to control, stimulate and facilitate their learning processes. It is assumed that humans have and use these HLIs for all types of learning, and that others, such as parents, teachers, friends, and digital devices can interact with the interface to help a person to learn something. Three basic HLIs are identified that represent three distinct types of learning: learning to deal with new situations (identification), learning to behave in a social group (socialization) and learning by creating something (creation). These three HLIs involve a change in cognitive representations and behavior. Performance can be increased using the practice HLI, and meta-cognitive development is supported by the reflection HLI. This analysis of HLIs is used to identify the conditions for the development of effective smart learning environments and a research agenda for SLEs.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number5
    Pages (from-to)1-17
    Number of pages17
    JournalSmart Learning Environments
    Issue number5
    Publication statusPublished - 7 Nov 2014


    • Smart Learning Environments
    • Human Learning Interfaces
    • e-learning
    • Technology Enhanced Learning
    • Research agenda


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