Cost-Effectiveness of Nintedanib for Patients with Progressive Fibrosing Interstitial Lung Disease (PF-ILD)

Lotte Westerink*, Jelmer Lennart Jens Nicolai, Maarten Jacobus Postma, Job Frank Martien van Boven, Cornelis Boersma

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Objectives: Progressive fibrosing interstitial lung disease (PF-ILD) is characterised by increased pulmonary fibrosis, lung function decline, acute exacerbations, decreased quality of life and increased mortality. Nintedanib may slow down disease progression, but long-term outcomes are unknown. We aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of nintedanib in comparison to placebo, both on top of usual care in patients with PF-ILD. Methods: An individual PF-ILD patient simulation model was created, using data and extrapolations from the nintedanib and placebo arms of the INBUILD trial. Clinical outcomes (mortality, exacerbations, lung transplants), economic outcomes (direct and indirect costs) and the cost-effectiveness of nintedanib over a 10-year time horizon were forecasted using the Netherlands as a case example. Disease progression was driven by lung function decline, with forced vital capacity (FVC) health states ranging from < 40 to ≥ 110 FVC of % predicted. Sensitivity and scenario analyses were performed to assess the impact of parameter assumptions on the cost-effectiveness and to test model robustness. Results: Over a 10-year follow-up, nintedanib gained an average of 1.31 discounted life years and an average of 0.87 discounted quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of €60,690 per QALY. Sensitivity analyses showed cost variations had a minor impact on the ICER. Results were mainly driven by mortality probabilities and disease-related utilities. Scenario analyses indicated most sensitivity to the time horizon and lung transplantation costs. Conclusion: Long-term treatment with nintedanib could result in considerable health gains for patients with PF-ILD and can be considered cost-effective under the common willingness-to-pay threshold.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)647-656
Number of pages10
JournalPharmacoEconomics - open
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2022


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