In competency-based learning environments, schemata play an important role in solving complex and authentic problems. Adequate task-valid cueing is considered to facilitate both recall and interpretation of available schemata (task performance) and the construction of new schemata (learning). This article provides guidelines for cueing which aim at the improvement of (1) task performance in complex learning environments, (2) schema construction, and (3) monitoring. A model presents the relationships between cueing on the one hand and schema interpretation, schema construction, and monitoring on the other hand. The guidelines are used to evaluate worked-out examples and process worksheets, two formats of task-valid cueing that appear useful in competency-based learning environments. Worked-out examples support the inductive processing of concrete descriptions to construct schemata, while process worksheets support the deduction of concrete problem solving steps from general prescriptions. Illustrations are provided from the domain of law.
- schema construction
- complex problem-solving
- electronic learning environments