Demonstrating the reliability of transdiagnostic mHealth Routine Outcome Monitoring in mental health services using experience sampling technology

Simone J. W. Verhagen, Juliënne A. Berben, Carsten Leue, Anne Marsman, Philippe A. E. G. Delespaul, Jim van Os, Richel Lousberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

24 Citations (Web of Science)


Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM) should provide a dynamic, within-treatment forward feedback loop to guide individual treatment decisions across diagnostic categories. It has been suggested that the Experience Sampling Method (ESM), capturing the film of daily life adaptive processes, offers a flexible, personalised and transdiagnostic feedback system for monitoring and adapting treatment strategies. This is the first study that uses an ESM application (the PsyMate™) as a routine mobile-ROM (mROM) tool in an ambulatory mental health setting.

To demonstrate adequate psychometric properties of the PsyMate™ app assessing both symptom severity levels as well as daily life functioning.

In a transdiagnostic sample of 64 outpatients, an mROM protocol (ESM for 6 days, at 10 semi-random moments a day) and a standard ROM instrument (HADS) were administered at baseline and at three-month follow-up. We measured positive affect (PA), negative affect (NA), quality of sleep, positive social interaction, activity-related stress, tiredness, and feeling unwell.

Subjects completed 53% of the measurements at baseline (N = 64) and 48% at follow-up (N = 29). Factor analysis and subsequent reliability analysis of PA and NA confirmed the two constructs. Significant and meaningful correlations were found between PA, NA and HADS scores (ranging from r = .4 to r = .7). Multilevel analyses yielded significant change scores for all measures.

The ESM-based, transdiagnostic mROM tool can be used reliably in clinical settings: it shows adequate psychometric properties, as well as concurrent validity and sensitivity to change over time with respect to relevant ROM constructs. Person-tailored items can be added. In addition, mROM offers added value over standard symptom-based ROM, as it provides information on adaptive functioning in the daily environment of patients.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0186294
Number of pages14
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 12 Oct 2017


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