Effective methods to change sex-risk among drug users: a review of psychosocial interventions

Pepijn van Empelen, Gerjo Kok, Nicole M C van Kesteren, Bart van den Borne, Arjan E R Bos, Herman P Schaalma

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

    Abstract

    This review examines the current state of knowledge on the effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions with respect to sexual behavior among the population of drug users. The review focuses specifically on the relation between intervention methods found to be effective and the underlying theory. Electronic searches were conducted and supplemented by publications gathered through other channels. The studies were reviewed for (1) study design, (2) evident use of theory in intervention development, (3) clear targeting of determinants, (4) description of the study or studies, and (5) evaluation of the behavioral goals and targeted determinants. For each study, a description is given of: (1) the size and nature of the sample; (2) the retention rate; (3) the study design; (4) the nature of the intervention programs, including theoretical methods, practical strategies and theoretical background; (4) the measures of variability. The results show that a limited number of interventions were effective in changing sexual risk behavior among drug users. More successful programs featured several of the following elements: use of multiple theories and methods, inclusion of peers and rehearsal of skills. Moreover, the community-level interventions showed the importance of sustainability. The most successful intervention methods were modeling, skill building and social support enhancement. These methods are generally derived from the Social-Cognitive Theory or the Diffusion of Innovations Theory. Future HIV/AIDS interventions should build on the strengths discussed. Evaluations of interventions should be designed to facilitate comparison, using standardized and specific behavioral outcomes as well as standardized and preferably long-term follow-up levels, and should also evaluate the impact of programs at a psychosocial level to examine whether or not the theoretical methods on which a program was based were actually effective in changing the psychosocial factors targeted and why.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1593-608
    Number of pages16
    JournalSocial Science & Medicine
    Volume57
    Issue number9
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Nov 2003

    Fingerprint

    psychosocial intervention
    Drug Users
    drug
    Sexual Behavior
    Diffusion of Innovation
    HIV
    Risk-Taking
    Social Support
    Sample Size
    determinants
    Publications
    Drugs
    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
    psychosocial factors
    cognitive theory
    Psychology
    evaluation
    risk behavior
    social support
    AIDS

    Keywords

    • Community Health Services
    • HIV Infections/complications
    • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
    • Humans
    • Psychotherapy, Group
    • Risk Reduction Behavior
    • Risk-Taking
    • Safe Sex/psychology
    • Substance-Related Disorders/complications

    Cite this

    van Empelen, Pepijn ; Kok, Gerjo ; van Kesteren, Nicole M C ; van den Borne, Bart ; Bos, Arjan E R ; Schaalma, Herman P. / Effective methods to change sex-risk among drug users : a review of psychosocial interventions. In: Social Science & Medicine. 2003 ; Vol. 57, No. 9. pp. 1593-608.
    @article{0b981b2948a0476b9d509b9faf231e36,
    title = "Effective methods to change sex-risk among drug users: a review of psychosocial interventions",
    abstract = "This review examines the current state of knowledge on the effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions with respect to sexual behavior among the population of drug users. The review focuses specifically on the relation between intervention methods found to be effective and the underlying theory. Electronic searches were conducted and supplemented by publications gathered through other channels. The studies were reviewed for (1) study design, (2) evident use of theory in intervention development, (3) clear targeting of determinants, (4) description of the study or studies, and (5) evaluation of the behavioral goals and targeted determinants. For each study, a description is given of: (1) the size and nature of the sample; (2) the retention rate; (3) the study design; (4) the nature of the intervention programs, including theoretical methods, practical strategies and theoretical background; (4) the measures of variability. The results show that a limited number of interventions were effective in changing sexual risk behavior among drug users. More successful programs featured several of the following elements: use of multiple theories and methods, inclusion of peers and rehearsal of skills. Moreover, the community-level interventions showed the importance of sustainability. The most successful intervention methods were modeling, skill building and social support enhancement. These methods are generally derived from the Social-Cognitive Theory or the Diffusion of Innovations Theory. Future HIV/AIDS interventions should build on the strengths discussed. Evaluations of interventions should be designed to facilitate comparison, using standardized and specific behavioral outcomes as well as standardized and preferably long-term follow-up levels, and should also evaluate the impact of programs at a psychosocial level to examine whether or not the theoretical methods on which a program was based were actually effective in changing the psychosocial factors targeted and why.",
    keywords = "Community Health Services, HIV Infections/complications, Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice, Humans, Psychotherapy, Group, Risk Reduction Behavior, Risk-Taking, Safe Sex/psychology, Substance-Related Disorders/complications",
    author = "{van Empelen}, Pepijn and Gerjo Kok and {van Kesteren}, {Nicole M C} and {van den Borne}, Bart and Bos, {Arjan E R} and Schaalma, {Herman P}",
    year = "2003",
    month = "11",
    doi = "10.1016/S0277-9536(02)00557-9",
    language = "English",
    volume = "57",
    pages = "1593--608",
    journal = "Social Science & Medicine",
    issn = "0277-9536",
    publisher = "PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD",
    number = "9",

    }

    van Empelen, P, Kok, G, van Kesteren, NMC, van den Borne, B, Bos, AER & Schaalma, HP 2003, 'Effective methods to change sex-risk among drug users: a review of psychosocial interventions', Social Science & Medicine, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 1593-608. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(02)00557-9

    Effective methods to change sex-risk among drug users : a review of psychosocial interventions. / van Empelen, Pepijn; Kok, Gerjo; van Kesteren, Nicole M C; van den Borne, Bart; Bos, Arjan E R; Schaalma, Herman P.

    In: Social Science & Medicine, Vol. 57, No. 9, 11.2003, p. 1593-608.

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleAcademicpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Effective methods to change sex-risk among drug users

    T2 - a review of psychosocial interventions

    AU - van Empelen, Pepijn

    AU - Kok, Gerjo

    AU - van Kesteren, Nicole M C

    AU - van den Borne, Bart

    AU - Bos, Arjan E R

    AU - Schaalma, Herman P

    PY - 2003/11

    Y1 - 2003/11

    N2 - This review examines the current state of knowledge on the effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions with respect to sexual behavior among the population of drug users. The review focuses specifically on the relation between intervention methods found to be effective and the underlying theory. Electronic searches were conducted and supplemented by publications gathered through other channels. The studies were reviewed for (1) study design, (2) evident use of theory in intervention development, (3) clear targeting of determinants, (4) description of the study or studies, and (5) evaluation of the behavioral goals and targeted determinants. For each study, a description is given of: (1) the size and nature of the sample; (2) the retention rate; (3) the study design; (4) the nature of the intervention programs, including theoretical methods, practical strategies and theoretical background; (4) the measures of variability. The results show that a limited number of interventions were effective in changing sexual risk behavior among drug users. More successful programs featured several of the following elements: use of multiple theories and methods, inclusion of peers and rehearsal of skills. Moreover, the community-level interventions showed the importance of sustainability. The most successful intervention methods were modeling, skill building and social support enhancement. These methods are generally derived from the Social-Cognitive Theory or the Diffusion of Innovations Theory. Future HIV/AIDS interventions should build on the strengths discussed. Evaluations of interventions should be designed to facilitate comparison, using standardized and specific behavioral outcomes as well as standardized and preferably long-term follow-up levels, and should also evaluate the impact of programs at a psychosocial level to examine whether or not the theoretical methods on which a program was based were actually effective in changing the psychosocial factors targeted and why.

    AB - This review examines the current state of knowledge on the effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions with respect to sexual behavior among the population of drug users. The review focuses specifically on the relation between intervention methods found to be effective and the underlying theory. Electronic searches were conducted and supplemented by publications gathered through other channels. The studies were reviewed for (1) study design, (2) evident use of theory in intervention development, (3) clear targeting of determinants, (4) description of the study or studies, and (5) evaluation of the behavioral goals and targeted determinants. For each study, a description is given of: (1) the size and nature of the sample; (2) the retention rate; (3) the study design; (4) the nature of the intervention programs, including theoretical methods, practical strategies and theoretical background; (4) the measures of variability. The results show that a limited number of interventions were effective in changing sexual risk behavior among drug users. More successful programs featured several of the following elements: use of multiple theories and methods, inclusion of peers and rehearsal of skills. Moreover, the community-level interventions showed the importance of sustainability. The most successful intervention methods were modeling, skill building and social support enhancement. These methods are generally derived from the Social-Cognitive Theory or the Diffusion of Innovations Theory. Future HIV/AIDS interventions should build on the strengths discussed. Evaluations of interventions should be designed to facilitate comparison, using standardized and specific behavioral outcomes as well as standardized and preferably long-term follow-up levels, and should also evaluate the impact of programs at a psychosocial level to examine whether or not the theoretical methods on which a program was based were actually effective in changing the psychosocial factors targeted and why.

    KW - Community Health Services

    KW - HIV Infections/complications

    KW - Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice

    KW - Humans

    KW - Psychotherapy, Group

    KW - Risk Reduction Behavior

    KW - Risk-Taking

    KW - Safe Sex/psychology

    KW - Substance-Related Disorders/complications

    U2 - 10.1016/S0277-9536(02)00557-9

    DO - 10.1016/S0277-9536(02)00557-9

    M3 - Review article

    C2 - 12948569

    VL - 57

    SP - 1593

    EP - 1608

    JO - Social Science & Medicine

    JF - Social Science & Medicine

    SN - 0277-9536

    IS - 9

    ER -