Emerging and Future Directions in Test-Enhanced Learning Research

Steven C. Pan*, John Dunlosky, Kate M. Xu, Kim Ouwehand

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalEditorialAcademicpeer-review


Over the past eighteen years, research into test-enhanced learning has expanded significantly and remains vibrant to this day. The fact that many major research questions in the literature have already been addressed, however, raises the question: “What’s next?” That question motivates this special issue. We asked leading researchers in the field to contribute articles highlighting cutting-edge and new directions in test-enhanced learning research. The resulting review papers, empirical articles, and commentaries address many fascinating topics, including: (a) new approaches that are generating insights into test-enhanced learning in relation to other learning techniques (e.g., combining testing with elaborative or generative learning activities); (b) investigations of lesser-known test-based learning strategies that have the potential to enhance educational outcomes (e.g., pretesting and prequestioning, spaced retrieval practice, test-potentiated new learning or forward testing; and successive relearning); (c) new research on effective uses of practice testing during self-regulated learning and in other contexts; and (d) how to promote awareness and acceptance of test-enhanced learning among students and practitioners. These articles showcase some of the most promising new directions in test-enhanced learning research, so we anticipate that this special issue will inspire further investigations of practice testing and its educational applications.
Original languageEnglish
Article number20
Number of pages15
JournalEducational Psychology Review
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 12 Feb 2024


  • Education
  • Metacognition
  • Retrieval Practice
  • Test-Enhanced Learning
  • Testing Effect


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