Emotional labor: ontwikkeling en validering van de Dutch Questionnaire on Emotional Labor (D-QEL)

Mariette Briët, Gérard Näring, André Brouwers, Annemarie van Droffelaar

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    In this study emotional labor is defined as intentional, internal processes which create or maintain a state of dissonance. This paper describes the development and the subsequent validation of the Dutch Questionnaire on Emotional Labor (D-QEL) as tested on samples of 365 teachers in mathematics and 334 nurses in the Netherlands. The D-QEL is a 13 item self-report questionnaire that measures four facets of emotional display in the workplace, including surface acting, deep acting, surface acting hiding and emotional consonance. Estimates of the internal consistency ranged from .61 to .85. Confirmatory factor analysis provided support for the existence of four separate subscales. Evidence was also provided for convergent, discriminant and criterion validity.
    Original languageDutch
    Pages (from-to)221-229
    JournalGedrag & Gezondheid
    Issue number5
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2005


    • emotional labor
    • questionnaire

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