Employability and innovative work behaviour in small and medium-sized enterprises

Jol MM Stoffers*, Beatrice IJM Van der Heijden, Eric AGM Jacobs

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


The purpose of this study is to cross-validate HRM measurement instruments for employability (individual competence-based approach) and innovative work behaviour within the context of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) further. The sample consisted of 487 pairs of employees and their immediate supervisors who work in 151 SMEs. A multitrait-multimethod analysis was performed, and the results suggest that for both instruments, requirements regarding convergent and divergent validity have been met satisfactorily. Structural Equation Modeling was performed in order to confirm the factor structure of the instruments. Paired-samples comparisons showed that all of the inter-method correlations for the two-source (employee and immediate supervisor) ratings and for both instruments were significantly positive. As for the final part of the cross-validation, multiple regression analyses were performed to demonstrate predictive validity. Depending on the stage of innovative work behaviour, different dimensions of employability appeared to play a significant role, although the effect did not always veer towards the direction expected. Investing in employability enhancement appeared to contribute to innovative work behaviour. The measurement instruments of employability and innovative work behaviour can provide SME managers with effective instruments to be used for performance appraisals, assessments, and employee development tools.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1439-1466
Number of pages28
JournalInternational Journal of Human Resource Management
Issue number11
Early online date2018
Publication statusPublished - 16 Jun 2020


  • Employability
  • innovative work behaviour
  • small and medium-sized enterprises


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