Evidence That Environmental and Familial Risks for Psychosis Additively Impact a Multidimensional Subthreshold Psychosis Syndrome

Lotta-Katrin Pries, Sinan Guloksuz, Margreet Ten Have, Ron de Graaf, Saskia van Dorsselaer, N. Gunther, Christian Rauschenberg, Ulrich Reininghaus, Rajiv Radhakrishnan, Maarten Bak, Bart Rutten, Jim van Os

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Abstract

Background: The observed link between positive psychotic experiences (PE) and psychosis spectrum disorder (PSD) may be stronger depending on concomitant presence of PE with other dimensions of psychopathology. We examined whether the effect of common risk factors for PSD on PE is additive and whether the impact of risk factors on the occurrence of PE depends on the co-occurrence of other symptom dimensions (affective dysregulation, negative symptoms, and cognitive alteration).

Method: Data from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study 2 were used. Risk factors included childhood adversity, cannabis use, urbanicity, foreign born, hearing impairment, and family history of affective disorders. Logistic regression models were applied to test (1) the additive effect of risk factors (4 levels) on PE and (2) the moderating effects of symptom dimensions on the association between risk factors (present/absent) and PE, using additive interaction, expressed as the interaction contrast ratio.

Results: Risk factors were additive: the greater the number of risk factors, the greater the odds of PE. Furthermore, concomitant presence of the other symptom dimensions all increased the impact of risk factors on PE. After controlling for age, sex, and education, only affective dysregulation and negative symptoms remained significant moderators; only affective dysregulation remained a significant moderator if all dimensions were adjusted for each other.

Conclusions: Risk factors may not be directly associated with PE but additively give rise to a multidimensional subthreshold state anticipating the multidimensional clinical syndrome. Early motivational and cognitive impairments in the context of PE may be reducible to affective dysregulation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)710-719
Number of pages10
JournalSchizophrenia Bulletin
Volume44
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2018

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Keywords

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Disease Susceptibility
  • Environment
  • Female
  • Health Surveys
  • Humans
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Netherlands/epidemiology
  • Psychotic Disorders/epidemiology
  • Risk Factors
  • Young Adult
  • symptom dimensions
  • MENTAL-HEALTH SURVEY
  • GENERAL-POPULATION
  • AFFECTIVE PATHWAY
  • INCIDENCE STUDY-2
  • psychotic experiences
  • SUBCLINICAL PSYCHOSIS
  • risk factors
  • DELUSIONAL IDEATION
  • NETWORK APPROACH
  • ULTRA-HIGH RISK
  • BIPOLAR DISORDER
  • CHILDHOOD TRAUMA

Cite this

Pries, L-K., Guloksuz, S., Ten Have, M., de Graaf, R., van Dorsselaer, S., Gunther, N., Rauschenberg, C., Reininghaus, U., Radhakrishnan, R., Bak, M., Rutten, B., & van Os, J. (2018). Evidence That Environmental and Familial Risks for Psychosis Additively Impact a Multidimensional Subthreshold Psychosis Syndrome. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 44(4), 710-719. https://doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sby051