Factor Structure and Measurement Invariance of the Teacher Autonomous Behavior Scale in Turkey

Muhammet Fatih Alkan*, Fazilet Özge Maviş Sevim, A.T. Evers

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Teacher autonomy positively impacts various profession-related variables, including professional self-efficacy, motivation, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, teacher success, and job performance. The development and adaptation of sound instruments will contribute to achieving a complete understanding of teachers’ autonomous behavior and its underlying mechanism. Thus, based on an extensive literature review and earlier research findings, Evers, Verboon, and Klaeijsen developed a promising tool to measure the autonomous behaviors of teachers. The purpose of the current study was to further examine the factor structure of the Teacher Autonomous Behavior Scale for a Turkish sample (n = 711). Although the comparison of diverse models revealed ambiguous results, examination of bifactor indices revealed that the instrument was essentially unidimensional, unlike the original correlated four-factor model. Thus, a unidimensional model with four parcels was recommended. Correlations of Teacher Autonomous Behavior with other constructs provided evidence to support convergent and discriminant validity. Multigroup CFA revealed strict measurement invariance across gender and school stages in the Turkish sample while it demonstrated configural and metric invariance across Turkish and Dutch teachers.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)777-795
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Psychoeducational Assessment
Issue number7
Early online date27 Jun 2023
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2023


  • autonomy
  • bifactor model
  • cross-cultural validation
  • parceling
  • scale adaptation


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