Fractal dimension complexity of gravitation fractals in central place theory

Michał Banaszak, Krzysztof Górnisiewicz, Peter Nijkamp*, Waldemar Ratajczak

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Settlement centers of various types, including cities, produce basins of attraction whose shape can be regular or complexly irregular (from the point of view of geometry). This complexity depends in part on properties of the space surrounding a settlement. This paper demonstrates that by introducing a dynamic approach to space and by including an equation of motion and space resistance, a dramatic change in the stylized static CPT (Central Place Theory) image occurs. As a result of the interplay of gravitational forces, basins of attraction arise around cities, whose boundaries appear to be fractals. This study provides a wealth of spatial fractal complex images which may change the traditional understanding of CPT.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2343
JournalScientific Reports
Publication statusPublished - 2023


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