Get Gamification of MOOC right! How to Embed the Individual and Social Aspects of MOOCs in Gamification Design.

Alessandra Antonaci*, Roland Klemke, Karel Kreijns, Marcus Specht

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


The social and individual aspects of MOOCs are two sides of the same coin. However, while the majority of MOOC designs do not valorise the potential that a massive audience could bring in, several studies highlight the solo-mission mode of MOOC users’ experience. Based on implementation intention, social presence, social influence and flow theory we conceptualise our gamification design of MOOCs that embraces their social and individual aspects. We present the gamification design process, our theoretical framework, the quantitative and qualitative results of our study to identify the most suitable game elements, their conceptual design, and our recommendations. Our findings enable designers of gamification and MOOCs as well, to see these two phenomena under a new light, by referring to new theories and new game elements that were not being considered before in the design of a gamified MOOC aiming at enhancing users’ goal achievement and engagement.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)61-78
Number of pages18
JournalInternational Journal of Serious Games
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 26 Sep 2018



  • MOOC
  • Gamification
  • Process
  • Design
  • Social Gamification
  • Learner Characteristics
  • Social Presence
  • Persuasion
  • Flow
  • FLOW

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