Artificial intelligence (AI) already plays a role in deciding what unemployment benefits someone gets, where a burglary is likely to take place, whether someone is at risk of cancer, or who sees that catchy advertisement for low mortgage rates. Its use keeps growing, presenting seemingly endless possibilities. But we need to make sure to fully uphold fundamental rights standards when using AI. This report presents concrete examples of how companies and public administrations in the EU are using, or trying to use, AI. It focuses on four core areas – social benefits, predictive policing, health services and targeted advertising. The report discusses the potential implications for fundamental rights and analyses how such rights are taken into account when using or developing AI applications. In so doing, it aims to help ensure that the future EU regulatory framework for AI is firmly grounded in respect for human and fundamental rights.