Gratitude and loneliness in adults over 40 years: examining the role of psychological flexibility and engaged living

Esther Frinking, Lilian Jans-Beken, Mayke Janssens, Sanne Peeters, Johan Lataster, Nele Jacobs, Jennifer Reijnders*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between trait gratitude and loneliness in a Dutch population sample of adults over 40 years. In addition, the mediating role of psychological flexibility and engaged living between trait gratitude and loneliness was assessed.

Method: A total sample of 163 adults of which 65 men (40%) and 98 women (60%) between 41 and 92 years (Mage = 66, SDage = 12) participated in this study. Data from the Loneliness Questionnaire, Flexibility Index Test, Engaged Living Scale and the Short Gratitude, Resentment, and Appreciation Test were used. Mediation analysis was performed.

Results: Analysis showed a negative association between trait gratitude and loneliness. In addition, after adjusting for the demographic variables age, gender and educational level, the association between trait gratitude and loneliness was fully mediated by psychological flexibility, and partially mediated by engaged living.

Conclusion: This study endorses the importance of trait gratitude and psychological flexibility in relation to experiencing loneliness. Further research is needed to replicate these findings in a more diverse sample and to investigate the causal relationships between these constructs. It would also be interesting to further investigate the role of different age groups and goal (dis)engagement strategies in this relation.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages8
JournalAging & Mental Health
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 8 Oct 2019

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Loneliness
Psychology
Age Groups
Demography
Research
Population

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@article{b764c5815fce497eb46b3b153bad3d17,
title = "Gratitude and loneliness in adults over 40 years: examining the role of psychological flexibility and engaged living",
abstract = "Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between trait gratitude and loneliness in a Dutch population sample of adults over 40 years. In addition, the mediating role of psychological flexibility and engaged living between trait gratitude and loneliness was assessed. Method: A total sample of 163 adults of which 65 men (40{\%}) and 98 women (60{\%}) between 41 and 92 years (Mage = 66, SDage = 12) participated in this study. Data from the Loneliness Questionnaire, Flexibility Index Test, Engaged Living Scale and the Short Gratitude, Resentment, and Appreciation Test were used. Mediation analysis was performed.Results: Analysis showed a negative association between trait gratitude and loneliness. In addition, after adjusting for the demographic variables age, gender and educational level, the association between trait gratitude and loneliness was fully mediated by psychological flexibility, and partially mediated by engaged living.Conclusion: This study endorses the importance of trait gratitude and psychological flexibility in relation to experiencing loneliness. Further research is needed to replicate these findings in a more diverse sample and to investigate the causal relationships between these constructs. It would also be interesting to further investigate the role of different age groups and goal (dis)engagement strategies in this relation.",
author = "Esther Frinking and Lilian Jans-Beken and Mayke Janssens and Sanne Peeters and Johan Lataster and Nele Jacobs and Jennifer Reijnders",
year = "2019",
month = "10",
day = "8",
doi = "10.1080/13607863.2019.1673309",
language = "English",
journal = "Aging & Mental Health",
issn = "1360-7863",
publisher = "ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD",

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Gratitude and loneliness in adults over 40 years

T2 - examining the role of psychological flexibility and engaged living

AU - Frinking, Esther

AU - Jans-Beken, Lilian

AU - Janssens, Mayke

AU - Peeters, Sanne

AU - Lataster, Johan

AU - Jacobs, Nele

AU - Reijnders, Jennifer

PY - 2019/10/8

Y1 - 2019/10/8

N2 - Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between trait gratitude and loneliness in a Dutch population sample of adults over 40 years. In addition, the mediating role of psychological flexibility and engaged living between trait gratitude and loneliness was assessed. Method: A total sample of 163 adults of which 65 men (40%) and 98 women (60%) between 41 and 92 years (Mage = 66, SDage = 12) participated in this study. Data from the Loneliness Questionnaire, Flexibility Index Test, Engaged Living Scale and the Short Gratitude, Resentment, and Appreciation Test were used. Mediation analysis was performed.Results: Analysis showed a negative association between trait gratitude and loneliness. In addition, after adjusting for the demographic variables age, gender and educational level, the association between trait gratitude and loneliness was fully mediated by psychological flexibility, and partially mediated by engaged living.Conclusion: This study endorses the importance of trait gratitude and psychological flexibility in relation to experiencing loneliness. Further research is needed to replicate these findings in a more diverse sample and to investigate the causal relationships between these constructs. It would also be interesting to further investigate the role of different age groups and goal (dis)engagement strategies in this relation.

AB - Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between trait gratitude and loneliness in a Dutch population sample of adults over 40 years. In addition, the mediating role of psychological flexibility and engaged living between trait gratitude and loneliness was assessed. Method: A total sample of 163 adults of which 65 men (40%) and 98 women (60%) between 41 and 92 years (Mage = 66, SDage = 12) participated in this study. Data from the Loneliness Questionnaire, Flexibility Index Test, Engaged Living Scale and the Short Gratitude, Resentment, and Appreciation Test were used. Mediation analysis was performed.Results: Analysis showed a negative association between trait gratitude and loneliness. In addition, after adjusting for the demographic variables age, gender and educational level, the association between trait gratitude and loneliness was fully mediated by psychological flexibility, and partially mediated by engaged living.Conclusion: This study endorses the importance of trait gratitude and psychological flexibility in relation to experiencing loneliness. Further research is needed to replicate these findings in a more diverse sample and to investigate the causal relationships between these constructs. It would also be interesting to further investigate the role of different age groups and goal (dis)engagement strategies in this relation.

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DO - 10.1080/13607863.2019.1673309

M3 - Article

JO - Aging & Mental Health

JF - Aging & Mental Health

SN - 1360-7863

ER -