How to optimize learning Observational learning from animated models: A review of guidelines based on cognitive load.

Pieter Wouters, Fred Paas, Jeroen Van Merriënboer

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    Abstract

    Animated models explicate the procedure to reach a problem solution as well as the rationale behind this procedure. For abstract cognitive processes, animations might be beneficial especially when explanations are provided by a supportive pedagogical agent. We argue that animated models can be an effective instructional method provided that they are designed in such a way that cognitive capacity is optimally employed. This review proposes three sets of design guidelines based on cognitive load research. The first set aims at managing the complexity of subject matter. The second set focuses on preventing activities -due to poor design- that obstruct learning. The last set of guidelines incites learners to engage in active and relevant processing of subject matter. Finally, an integrative framework is presented for designing effective animated models.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)645-675
    JournalReview of Educational Research
    Volume78
    Issue number3
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2008

    Keywords

    • cognitive modeling
    • animations
    • cognitive load theory

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