Is it possible to conceive of environmental duties in the private domain? This question is looked upon from the perspective of the relation between duties and institutions. A distinction is made between an institution-oriented and a lifestyle-oriented approach to citizenship duties. The argument consists of two parts. In the first part, an institution-oriented view ‚Äì that of Rawls ‚Äì is discussed. In Rawls's account duties are limited in their orientation (institutions) and extent (cost proviso and basic liberties). The second part examines whether private actions can be part of such an institution-oriented view. It is argued that there are several kinds of private duties conceivable in an institution-oriented approach without having the disadvantages of a lifestyle-oriented approach.