Is Fear of Harm (FoH) in Sports-Related Activities a Latent Trait? The Item Response Model Applied to the Photographic Series of Sports Activities for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture (PHOSA-ACLR)

Wim van Lankveld*, Ron J Pat-El, Nicky van Melick, Robert van Cingel, J Bart Staal

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Background: Fear of Harm (FoH) predicts return to sports in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction (ACLR) and can be assessed using the Photographic Sports Activities for ACLR (PHOSA-ACLR). This study was conducted to determine whether FoH assessed using the PHOSA-ACLR is a latent trait, and to analyze differences in PHOSA-ACLR in athletes with or without an ACL rupture. 

Methods: Three convenience samples completed the PHOSA-ACLR: (1) ACLR patients (n = 58; mean age 25.9 years; range 17-56; SD = 8.2; 43% male); (2) first year Physical Therapy (PT) students (n = 169; mean age = 19.2; SD = 2.0; 48% male), and (3) junior football players (n = 30; mean age = 18.3; range 17-20; SD = 3.2; 94% males). ACLR patients additionally reported functioning and Fear of Movement. PHOSA-ACLR items were analyzed with Item Response Theory using the Graded Response Model (GRM). Differences between three groups of participants were analyzed using Univariate Analysis of Variance. 

Results: Data fitted the two-parameter GRM, and therefore the items of the PHOSA-ACLR constitute a latent trait. There was a significant difference between the three groups in PHOSA-ACLR after controlling for age and gender (F (2, 255) = 17.1, p < 0.001). PT students reported higher levels of FoH compared to either ACLR patients or healthy soccer players. 

Conclusions: PHOSA-ACLR items constitute a latent trait of FoH for ACLR-specific movements. Contrary to expectations, PHOSA-ACLR is higher in first year physiotherapy students compared to patients rehabilitating from ACLR, and healthy junior soccer players.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6764
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Volume17
Issue number18
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 16 Sep 2020

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