Measuring emotional labor in the classroom: The darker emotions

Gérard W.B. Näring, Anne R.M. Canisius*, André Brouwers

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterAcademicpeer-review

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    Research on emotional labor amongst teachers has focused on surface acting and deep acting of positive emotions. However, there is evidence that negative emotions play a vital role too. This study developed and examined two new scales, surface acting of negative emotions and deep acting of negative emotions, as an extension of the Dutch Questionnaire on Emotional Labor (D-QEL). Participants were two subsamples of secondary school teachers (total N = 399). A confirmatory factor analysis showed that both deep as well as surface acting of negative emotions have to be distinguished from acting positive emotions. The difference between the scores of experienced and inexperienced teachers on the new scales can be taken as proof of their validity
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationNew challenges for a healthy workplace in human services
    EditorsA. Caetano, S. Silva, M.J. Chambel
    Place of PublicationMünich, Germany
    PublisherRainer Hampp Verlag
    ISBN (Electronic)978-3-86618-733-7
    ISBN (Print)978-3-86618-633-0
    Publication statusPublished - 2011

    Publication series

    SeriesOrganizational Psychology and Health Care


    • emotional labor
    • negative emotions
    • teachers
    • teaching
    • questionnaire
    • emotional regulation


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