Polyunsaturated fatty acid levels at birth and child-to-adult growth: Results from the MEFAB cohort

N. Stratakis*, M. Gielen, K. Margetaki, R.W. Godschalk, I. van der Wurff, S. Rouschop, A. Ibrahim, E. Antoniou, L. Chatzi, R.H.M. de Groot, M.P. Zeegers

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Background: Prenatal exposure to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may influence childhood growth. However, available evidence mostly derived from short-term studies is inconsistent. Objective: To assess whether fetal PUFA exposure is associated with height and body mass index (BMI), a common measure of adiposity, from 6 months to 23 years of age. Methods: In the MEFAB cohort, we assessed cord blood phospholipid n-3 and n-6 PUFA levels, reflecting fetal exposure in late pregnancy. For 250 (45.2% females) participants, we collected a total of 1770 (n= 802 for females) repeated growth measurements from infancy to young adulthood. We examined sex-specific associations of PUFAs with height and BMI at different developmental ages (infant: 6 months; toddler: 2 years; pre-schooler: 4 years; school-aged child: 7 years; adolescent: 12 years; and young adult: 23 years) using fractional polynomial mixed models adjusted for important covariates. Results: Higher n-3 PUFA levels were associated with higher infant length in males (β= 0.44 cm [95% CI: 0.07, 0.82] per SD increase), whereas, for females, higher n-6 PUFA concentrations were associated with lower length in infancy (β= −0.69 cm [95% CI: −1.08, −0.30] per SD increase). A higher ratio of n-3 to n-6 PUFAs was associated with higher infant length in both sexes (β= 0.40 cm [95% CI: 0.01, 0.78] and 0.42 cm [95% CI: 0.05, 0.79] per unit increase for males and females, respectively). These associations were not detectable later in childhood and young adulthood. No associations with BMI were found at any time point examined. Conclusions: Our findings suggest a small sex-specific influence of PUFA status at birth on length in infancy, but this does not persist in later life up to young adulthood. PUFA status at birth does not seem to affect BMI from infancy till young adulthood.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)72-78
Number of pages7
JournalProstaglandins, Leukotrienes, & Essential Fatty Acids
Volume126
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2017

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Unsaturated Fatty Acids
Parturition
Growth
Body Mass Index
Adiposity
Omega-3 Fatty Acids
Statistical Models
Fetal Blood
Young Adult
Phospholipids
Pregnancy

Keywords

  • adulthood
  • BMI
  • childhood
  • cord blood
  • height
  • PUFAs

Cite this

Stratakis, N. ; Gielen, M. ; Margetaki, K. ; Godschalk, R.W. ; van der Wurff, I. ; Rouschop, S. ; Ibrahim, A. ; Antoniou, E. ; Chatzi, L. ; de Groot, R.H.M. ; Zeegers, M.P. / Polyunsaturated fatty acid levels at birth and child-to-adult growth : Results from the MEFAB cohort. In: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, & Essential Fatty Acids. 2017 ; Vol. 126. pp. 72-78.
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title = "Polyunsaturated fatty acid levels at birth and child-to-adult growth: Results from the MEFAB cohort",
abstract = "Background: Prenatal exposure to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may influence childhood growth. However, available evidence mostly derived from short-term studies is inconsistent. Objective: To assess whether fetal PUFA exposure is associated with height and body mass index (BMI), a common measure of adiposity, from 6 months to 23 years of age. Methods: In the MEFAB cohort, we assessed cord blood phospholipid n-3 and n-6 PUFA levels, reflecting fetal exposure in late pregnancy. For 250 (45.2{\%} females) participants, we collected a total of 1770 (n= 802 for females) repeated growth measurements from infancy to young adulthood. We examined sex-specific associations of PUFAs with height and BMI at different developmental ages (infant: 6 months; toddler: 2 years; pre-schooler: 4 years; school-aged child: 7 years; adolescent: 12 years; and young adult: 23 years) using fractional polynomial mixed models adjusted for important covariates. Results: Higher n-3 PUFA levels were associated with higher infant length in males (β= 0.44 cm [95{\%} CI: 0.07, 0.82] per SD increase), whereas, for females, higher n-6 PUFA concentrations were associated with lower length in infancy (β= −0.69 cm [95{\%} CI: −1.08, −0.30] per SD increase). A higher ratio of n-3 to n-6 PUFAs was associated with higher infant length in both sexes (β= 0.40 cm [95{\%} CI: 0.01, 0.78] and 0.42 cm [95{\%} CI: 0.05, 0.79] per unit increase for males and females, respectively). These associations were not detectable later in childhood and young adulthood. No associations with BMI were found at any time point examined. Conclusions: Our findings suggest a small sex-specific influence of PUFA status at birth on length in infancy, but this does not persist in later life up to young adulthood. PUFA status at birth does not seem to affect BMI from infancy till young adulthood.",
keywords = "adulthood, BMI, childhood, cord blood, height, PUFAs",
author = "N. Stratakis and M. Gielen and K. Margetaki and R.W. Godschalk and {van der Wurff}, I. and S. Rouschop and A. Ibrahim and E. Antoniou and L. Chatzi and {de Groot}, R.H.M. and M.P. Zeegers",
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Polyunsaturated fatty acid levels at birth and child-to-adult growth : Results from the MEFAB cohort. / Stratakis, N.; Gielen, M.; Margetaki, K.; Godschalk, R.W.; van der Wurff, I.; Rouschop, S.; Ibrahim, A.; Antoniou, E.; Chatzi, L.; de Groot, R.H.M.; Zeegers, M.P.

In: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, & Essential Fatty Acids, Vol. 126, 11.2017, p. 72-78.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Polyunsaturated fatty acid levels at birth and child-to-adult growth

T2 - Results from the MEFAB cohort

AU - Stratakis, N.

AU - Gielen, M.

AU - Margetaki, K.

AU - Godschalk, R.W.

AU - van der Wurff, I.

AU - Rouschop, S.

AU - Ibrahim, A.

AU - Antoniou, E.

AU - Chatzi, L.

AU - de Groot, R.H.M.

AU - Zeegers, M.P.

N1 - DS_Citation:Stratakis, N., Gielen, M., Margetaki, K., Godschalk, R. W., van der Wurff, I., Rouschop, S., Ibrahim, A., Antoniou, E., Chatzi, L., de Groot, R. H. M., Zeegers, M.P. (2017). Polyunsaturated fatty acid levels at birth and child-to-adult growth: results from the MEFAB cohort. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes & Essential Fatty Acids, 126, 72.

PY - 2017/11

Y1 - 2017/11

N2 - Background: Prenatal exposure to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may influence childhood growth. However, available evidence mostly derived from short-term studies is inconsistent. Objective: To assess whether fetal PUFA exposure is associated with height and body mass index (BMI), a common measure of adiposity, from 6 months to 23 years of age. Methods: In the MEFAB cohort, we assessed cord blood phospholipid n-3 and n-6 PUFA levels, reflecting fetal exposure in late pregnancy. For 250 (45.2% females) participants, we collected a total of 1770 (n= 802 for females) repeated growth measurements from infancy to young adulthood. We examined sex-specific associations of PUFAs with height and BMI at different developmental ages (infant: 6 months; toddler: 2 years; pre-schooler: 4 years; school-aged child: 7 years; adolescent: 12 years; and young adult: 23 years) using fractional polynomial mixed models adjusted for important covariates. Results: Higher n-3 PUFA levels were associated with higher infant length in males (β= 0.44 cm [95% CI: 0.07, 0.82] per SD increase), whereas, for females, higher n-6 PUFA concentrations were associated with lower length in infancy (β= −0.69 cm [95% CI: −1.08, −0.30] per SD increase). A higher ratio of n-3 to n-6 PUFAs was associated with higher infant length in both sexes (β= 0.40 cm [95% CI: 0.01, 0.78] and 0.42 cm [95% CI: 0.05, 0.79] per unit increase for males and females, respectively). These associations were not detectable later in childhood and young adulthood. No associations with BMI were found at any time point examined. Conclusions: Our findings suggest a small sex-specific influence of PUFA status at birth on length in infancy, but this does not persist in later life up to young adulthood. PUFA status at birth does not seem to affect BMI from infancy till young adulthood.

AB - Background: Prenatal exposure to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may influence childhood growth. However, available evidence mostly derived from short-term studies is inconsistent. Objective: To assess whether fetal PUFA exposure is associated with height and body mass index (BMI), a common measure of adiposity, from 6 months to 23 years of age. Methods: In the MEFAB cohort, we assessed cord blood phospholipid n-3 and n-6 PUFA levels, reflecting fetal exposure in late pregnancy. For 250 (45.2% females) participants, we collected a total of 1770 (n= 802 for females) repeated growth measurements from infancy to young adulthood. We examined sex-specific associations of PUFAs with height and BMI at different developmental ages (infant: 6 months; toddler: 2 years; pre-schooler: 4 years; school-aged child: 7 years; adolescent: 12 years; and young adult: 23 years) using fractional polynomial mixed models adjusted for important covariates. Results: Higher n-3 PUFA levels were associated with higher infant length in males (β= 0.44 cm [95% CI: 0.07, 0.82] per SD increase), whereas, for females, higher n-6 PUFA concentrations were associated with lower length in infancy (β= −0.69 cm [95% CI: −1.08, −0.30] per SD increase). A higher ratio of n-3 to n-6 PUFAs was associated with higher infant length in both sexes (β= 0.40 cm [95% CI: 0.01, 0.78] and 0.42 cm [95% CI: 0.05, 0.79] per unit increase for males and females, respectively). These associations were not detectable later in childhood and young adulthood. No associations with BMI were found at any time point examined. Conclusions: Our findings suggest a small sex-specific influence of PUFA status at birth on length in infancy, but this does not persist in later life up to young adulthood. PUFA status at birth does not seem to affect BMI from infancy till young adulthood.

KW - adulthood

KW - BMI

KW - childhood

KW - cord blood

KW - height

KW - PUFAs

U2 - 10.1016/j.plefa.2017.09.004

DO - 10.1016/j.plefa.2017.09.004

M3 - Article

VL - 126

SP - 72

EP - 78

JO - Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids

JF - Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids

SN - 0952-3278

ER -