Putting Students on the Path to Learning: The Case for Fully Guided Instruction

Richard Clark, Paul A. Kirschner, John Sweller

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    1663 Downloads (Pure)


    Disputes about the impact of instructional guidance during teaching have been ongoing for more than a half century. On one side of this argument are those who believe that all people—novices and experts alike—learn best when provided with instruction that contains unguided or partly guided segments. This is generally defined as instruction in which learners, rather than being presented with all essential information and asked to practice using it, must discover or construct some or all of the essential information for themselves. On the other side are those who believe that ideal learning environments for experts and novices differ: while experts often thrive without much guidance, nearly everyone else thrives when provided with full, explicit instructional guidance (and should not be asked to discover any essential content or skills)
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)5-11
    Number of pages6
    JournalAmerican Educator
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - 2012


    • Direct instruction
    • Constructivism (learning)
    • Problem Based Learning
    • Discovery Learning
    • guidance
    • Teaching Methods
    • Inquiry
    • Instructional Effectiveness
    • Evidence
    • Best Practices
    • Educational Strategies
    • Learning Strategies
    • Scaffolding (Teaching Techniques)
    • Intermode Differences
    • Neuropsychology


    Dive into the research topics of 'Putting Students on the Path to Learning: The Case for Fully Guided Instruction'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this