Reasoning bias, working memory performance and a transdiagnostic phenotype of affective disturbances and psychotic experiences in the general population

Ulrich Reininghaus, Christian Rauschenberg, Margreet Ten Have, Ron de Graaf, Saskia van Dorsselaer, Claudia J P Simons, Nicole Gunther, Lotta-Katrin Pries, Sinan Guloksuz, Rajiv Radhakrishnan, Maarten Bak, Jim van Os

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Abstract

Background The jumping to conclusions (JTC) reasoning bias and decreased working memory performance (WMP) are associated with psychosis, but associations with affective disturbances (i.e. depression, anxiety, mania) remain inconclusive. Recent findings also suggest a transdiagnostic phenotype of co-occurring affective disturbances and psychotic experiences (PEs). This study investigated whether JTC bias and decreased WMP are associated with co-occurring affective disturbances and PEs. Methods Data were derived from the second Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS-2). Trained interviewers administered the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) at three time points in a general population sample (N = 4618). The beads and digit-span task were completed to assess JTC bias and WMP, respectively. CIDI was used to measure affective disturbances and an add-on instrument to measure PEs. Results Compared to individuals with neither affective disturbances nor PEs, the JTC bias was more likely to occur in individuals with co-occurring affective disturbances and PEs [moderate psychosis (1-2 PEs): adjusted relative risk ratio (RRR) 1.17, 95% CI 0.98-1.41; and high psychosis (3 or more PEs or psychosis-related help-seeking behaviour): adjusted RRR 1.57, 95% CI 1.19-2.08], but not with affective disturbances and PEs alone, whereas decreased WMP was more likely in all groups. There was some evidence of a dose-response relationship, as JTC bias and decreased WMP were more likely in individuals with affective disturbances as the level of PEs increased or help-seeking behaviour was reported. Conclusion The findings suggest that JTC bias and decreased WMP may contribute to a transdiagnostic phenotype of co-occurring affective disturbances and PEs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1799-1809
Number of pages11
JournalPsychological Medicine
Volume49
Issue number11
Early online date30 Aug 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2019

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Short-Term Memory
Phenotype
Psychotic Disorders
Population
Interviews
Odds Ratio
Health Surveys
Bipolar Disorder
Netherlands
Mental Health
Cohort Studies
Anxiety
Depression

Keywords

  • Anxiety
  • cognitive bias
  • cognitive deficits
  • depression
  • jumping to conclusions
  • mania
  • psychosis
  • reasoning bias
  • transdiagnostic phenotype
  • working memory
  • MENTAL-HEALTH SURVEY
  • MAJOR PSYCHIATRIC-DISORDERS
  • ULTRA-HIGH RISK
  • PERSECUTORY DELUSIONS
  • COGNITIVE-DEVELOPMENT
  • SCHIZOPHRENIA
  • SYMPTOMS
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • ANXIETY
  • DEPRESSION

Cite this

Reininghaus, U., Rauschenberg, C., Ten Have, M., de Graaf, R., van Dorsselaer, S., Simons, C. J. P., ... van Os, J. (2019). Reasoning bias, working memory performance and a transdiagnostic phenotype of affective disturbances and psychotic experiences in the general population. Psychological Medicine, 49(11), 1799-1809. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291718002209
Reininghaus, Ulrich ; Rauschenberg, Christian ; Ten Have, Margreet ; de Graaf, Ron ; van Dorsselaer, Saskia ; Simons, Claudia J P ; Gunther, Nicole ; Pries, Lotta-Katrin ; Guloksuz, Sinan ; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv ; Bak, Maarten ; van Os, Jim. / Reasoning bias, working memory performance and a transdiagnostic phenotype of affective disturbances and psychotic experiences in the general population. In: Psychological Medicine. 2019 ; Vol. 49, No. 11. pp. 1799-1809.
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title = "Reasoning bias, working memory performance and a transdiagnostic phenotype of affective disturbances and psychotic experiences in the general population",
abstract = "Background The jumping to conclusions (JTC) reasoning bias and decreased working memory performance (WMP) are associated with psychosis, but associations with affective disturbances (i.e. depression, anxiety, mania) remain inconclusive. Recent findings also suggest a transdiagnostic phenotype of co-occurring affective disturbances and psychotic experiences (PEs). This study investigated whether JTC bias and decreased WMP are associated with co-occurring affective disturbances and PEs. Methods Data were derived from the second Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS-2). Trained interviewers administered the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) at three time points in a general population sample (N = 4618). The beads and digit-span task were completed to assess JTC bias and WMP, respectively. CIDI was used to measure affective disturbances and an add-on instrument to measure PEs. Results Compared to individuals with neither affective disturbances nor PEs, the JTC bias was more likely to occur in individuals with co-occurring affective disturbances and PEs [moderate psychosis (1-2 PEs): adjusted relative risk ratio (RRR) 1.17, 95{\%} CI 0.98-1.41; and high psychosis (3 or more PEs or psychosis-related help-seeking behaviour): adjusted RRR 1.57, 95{\%} CI 1.19-2.08], but not with affective disturbances and PEs alone, whereas decreased WMP was more likely in all groups. There was some evidence of a dose-response relationship, as JTC bias and decreased WMP were more likely in individuals with affective disturbances as the level of PEs increased or help-seeking behaviour was reported. Conclusion The findings suggest that JTC bias and decreased WMP may contribute to a transdiagnostic phenotype of co-occurring affective disturbances and PEs.",
keywords = "Anxiety, cognitive bias, cognitive deficits, depression, jumping to conclusions, mania, psychosis, reasoning bias, transdiagnostic phenotype, working memory, MENTAL-HEALTH SURVEY, MAJOR PSYCHIATRIC-DISORDERS, ULTRA-HIGH RISK, PERSECUTORY DELUSIONS, COGNITIVE-DEVELOPMENT, SCHIZOPHRENIA, SYMPTOMS, CONCLUSIONS, ANXIETY, DEPRESSION",
author = "Ulrich Reininghaus and Christian Rauschenberg and {Ten Have}, Margreet and {de Graaf}, Ron and {van Dorsselaer}, Saskia and Simons, {Claudia J P} and Nicole Gunther and Lotta-Katrin Pries and Sinan Guloksuz and Rajiv Radhakrishnan and Maarten Bak and {van Os}, Jim",
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Reininghaus, U, Rauschenberg, C, Ten Have, M, de Graaf, R, van Dorsselaer, S, Simons, CJP, Gunther, N, Pries, L-K, Guloksuz, S, Radhakrishnan, R, Bak, M & van Os, J 2019, 'Reasoning bias, working memory performance and a transdiagnostic phenotype of affective disturbances and psychotic experiences in the general population', Psychological Medicine, vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 1799-1809. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291718002209

Reasoning bias, working memory performance and a transdiagnostic phenotype of affective disturbances and psychotic experiences in the general population. / Reininghaus, Ulrich; Rauschenberg, Christian; Ten Have, Margreet; de Graaf, Ron; van Dorsselaer, Saskia; Simons, Claudia J P; Gunther, Nicole; Pries, Lotta-Katrin; Guloksuz, Sinan; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv; Bak, Maarten; van Os, Jim.

In: Psychological Medicine, Vol. 49, No. 11, 08.2019, p. 1799-1809.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Reasoning bias, working memory performance and a transdiagnostic phenotype of affective disturbances and psychotic experiences in the general population

AU - Reininghaus, Ulrich

AU - Rauschenberg, Christian

AU - Ten Have, Margreet

AU - de Graaf, Ron

AU - van Dorsselaer, Saskia

AU - Simons, Claudia J P

AU - Gunther, Nicole

AU - Pries, Lotta-Katrin

AU - Guloksuz, Sinan

AU - Radhakrishnan, Rajiv

AU - Bak, Maarten

AU - van Os, Jim

PY - 2019/8

Y1 - 2019/8

N2 - Background The jumping to conclusions (JTC) reasoning bias and decreased working memory performance (WMP) are associated with psychosis, but associations with affective disturbances (i.e. depression, anxiety, mania) remain inconclusive. Recent findings also suggest a transdiagnostic phenotype of co-occurring affective disturbances and psychotic experiences (PEs). This study investigated whether JTC bias and decreased WMP are associated with co-occurring affective disturbances and PEs. Methods Data were derived from the second Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS-2). Trained interviewers administered the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) at three time points in a general population sample (N = 4618). The beads and digit-span task were completed to assess JTC bias and WMP, respectively. CIDI was used to measure affective disturbances and an add-on instrument to measure PEs. Results Compared to individuals with neither affective disturbances nor PEs, the JTC bias was more likely to occur in individuals with co-occurring affective disturbances and PEs [moderate psychosis (1-2 PEs): adjusted relative risk ratio (RRR) 1.17, 95% CI 0.98-1.41; and high psychosis (3 or more PEs or psychosis-related help-seeking behaviour): adjusted RRR 1.57, 95% CI 1.19-2.08], but not with affective disturbances and PEs alone, whereas decreased WMP was more likely in all groups. There was some evidence of a dose-response relationship, as JTC bias and decreased WMP were more likely in individuals with affective disturbances as the level of PEs increased or help-seeking behaviour was reported. Conclusion The findings suggest that JTC bias and decreased WMP may contribute to a transdiagnostic phenotype of co-occurring affective disturbances and PEs.

AB - Background The jumping to conclusions (JTC) reasoning bias and decreased working memory performance (WMP) are associated with psychosis, but associations with affective disturbances (i.e. depression, anxiety, mania) remain inconclusive. Recent findings also suggest a transdiagnostic phenotype of co-occurring affective disturbances and psychotic experiences (PEs). This study investigated whether JTC bias and decreased WMP are associated with co-occurring affective disturbances and PEs. Methods Data were derived from the second Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS-2). Trained interviewers administered the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) at three time points in a general population sample (N = 4618). The beads and digit-span task were completed to assess JTC bias and WMP, respectively. CIDI was used to measure affective disturbances and an add-on instrument to measure PEs. Results Compared to individuals with neither affective disturbances nor PEs, the JTC bias was more likely to occur in individuals with co-occurring affective disturbances and PEs [moderate psychosis (1-2 PEs): adjusted relative risk ratio (RRR) 1.17, 95% CI 0.98-1.41; and high psychosis (3 or more PEs or psychosis-related help-seeking behaviour): adjusted RRR 1.57, 95% CI 1.19-2.08], but not with affective disturbances and PEs alone, whereas decreased WMP was more likely in all groups. There was some evidence of a dose-response relationship, as JTC bias and decreased WMP were more likely in individuals with affective disturbances as the level of PEs increased or help-seeking behaviour was reported. Conclusion The findings suggest that JTC bias and decreased WMP may contribute to a transdiagnostic phenotype of co-occurring affective disturbances and PEs.

KW - Anxiety

KW - cognitive bias

KW - cognitive deficits

KW - depression

KW - jumping to conclusions

KW - mania

KW - psychosis

KW - reasoning bias

KW - transdiagnostic phenotype

KW - working memory

KW - MENTAL-HEALTH SURVEY

KW - MAJOR PSYCHIATRIC-DISORDERS

KW - ULTRA-HIGH RISK

KW - PERSECUTORY DELUSIONS

KW - COGNITIVE-DEVELOPMENT

KW - SCHIZOPHRENIA

KW - SYMPTOMS

KW - CONCLUSIONS

KW - ANXIETY

KW - DEPRESSION

U2 - 10.1017/S0033291718002209

DO - 10.1017/S0033291718002209

M3 - Article

VL - 49

SP - 1799

EP - 1809

JO - Psychological Medicine

JF - Psychological Medicine

SN - 0033-2917

IS - 11

ER -