The study examines whether the effect of virtual presence on learning is influenced by learner characteristics. More specifically, the focus is on how the variation in the actual experience of virtual presence and learning is related to learners' individual tendency to invest in virtual presence for educational computer games. According to these tendencies, fifty-nine 8 graders were divided into two groups (high vs. low tendency) and performed a computer-based learning game. Virtual presence and learning outcomes were measured by means of a questionnaire. Correlation and regression analyses were used and a moderation model was structured in order to analyze the relationship between the variables. Whereas the tendency to invest in virtual presence does not moderate the positive interaction between virtual presence and learning, correlation and regression results between both groups show that a stronger tendency to invest in virtual presence increases virtual presence and both, trivial- and non-trivial learning outcomes were evinced. In the eyes of learners, interestingly their tendency to invest in virtual presence for educational computer games was significantly lower than for conventional entertainment games.
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction|
|Early online date||12 Jan 2012|
|Publication status||Published - 23 Oct 2012|
- educational computer games; virtual presence