In line with fear of crime research, schools should be secure places where pupils feel safe in order to function well. Various types of risk and promotive variables at school-level and pupil-level may differently influence a pupil’s feelings of safety in school, the school surroundings, and at home. The aim is to elaborate and test a theoretical two-level model on risk and promotive variables by using national data from an Internet-based survey in all types of Dutch secondary education. The cross-sectional research involves 71,560 pupils from 185 schools. Confirmatory Factor Analysis and multi-level logistic regression analysis including latent variables are used to analyse the data. The results demonstrate that school size, pupil attainment level in education, and intactness of a pupil’s family, have positive effects on a pupil’s feelings of safety in and around school and at home; overall negative effects concern the school’s curricular differentiation and a pupil’s playing truant and not feeling most at home in the Netherlands. A school’s social, teaching, and instructional qualities, and a pupil’s being older, being a boy, and being baptised, positively affect the feelings of safety in and around school. A school’s safety policy and rules of conduct have no effects. Attending a church or mosque has negative effects on a pupil’s feelings of safety around school and at home. The findings confirm part of the two-level model. The Internet-based data collection and feedback procedure enables each school to longitudinally assess and evaluate own results at school level; in addition, cross-sectional comparison of school results with national benchmarks is possible.
- feelings of safety
- risk and promotive variables
- school effects and pupil effects
- secondary pupils
- multi-level latent variable model
- logistic regression analysis
- Internet-based monitoring