School indicators of violence experienced and feeling unsafe of Dutch LGB versus non-LGB secondary students and staff, 2006 - 2010.

Ton Mooij

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Gender and sexual orientation are expressed in heterosexual, lesbian (L), gay (G), bisexual (B), transgender (T), or queer (Q) interests and behavior. Compared with heterosexual persons, LGBTQ persons seem to experience more antisocial behavior including negative discrimination and violence. To assess differences in LGBTQ related discrimination in schools the question for this research is: Do the degrees of violence experienced and feeling unsafe of LGBTQ students and staff in a school differ from those of non-LGBTQ students and staff in the same school? Secondary analysis was carried out on data from a Dutch national digital monitor survey on safety in secondary schools. In 2006, 2008, and 2010, participation amounted to 570 schools, 18,300 teaching and support staff, and 216,000 students. Four indicators were constructed at the school level: two Mokken Scale means assessing severity of violence experienced and two Alpha Scale means assessing feeling unsafe. Analysis of mean differences showed that LGB students experienced more violence and felt less safe than non-LGB students; LGB staff felt less safe in school than non-LGB staff. When LGB students experienced more violence at school than non-LGB students, LGB students also felt less safe than non-LGB students for all three years. No such relationships existed for LGB staff, or between LGB staff and LGB students. No significant relationships were found between the four LGB school indicators and contextual school variables. The outcomes and uniqueness of the study are discussed. Limitations are the use of secondary data and the operationalization of LGBTQ. Recommendations are made to improve assessment and promote prosocial behavior of students and staff in schools to reduce LGBTQ discrimination and violence.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3413-3442
JournalJournal of Interpersonal Violence
Issue number20
Early online date8 May 2015
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2016



  • School violence
  • LGB issues
  • School indicators
  • LGB students
  • LGB teachers
  • Prevention of violence

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