Online learning's popularity has surged. However, teachers face the challenge of the lack of non-verbal communication with students, making it difficult to perceive their learning-centered affective states (LCAS), leading to missed intervention opportunities. Addressing this challenge requires a system that detects students' LCAS from their non-verbal cues and informs teachers in an actionable way. To design such a system, it is essential to explore field experts' needs and requirements. Therefore, we conducted design-based research focus groups with teachers to determine which LCAS they find important to know during online lectures and their preferred communication methods. The results indicated that confusion, engagement, boredom, frustration, and curiosity are the most important LCAS and that the proposed system should take into account teachers' cognitive load and give them autonomy in the choice of content and frequency of the information. Considering the obtained feedback, a prototype of two versions was developed. The prototype was evaluated by teachers utilizing the System Usability Scale (SUS). Results indicated an average SUS score of 80.5 and 74.5 for each version, suggesting acceptable usability. These findings can guide the design and development of a system that can help teachers recognize students' LCAS, thus improving synchronous online learning.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationLAK 2024 Conference Proceedings - 14th International Conference on Learning Analytics and Knowledge
PublisherAssociation for Computing Machinery
Number of pages10
ISBN (Electronic)9798400716188
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2024
Event14th International Conference on Learning Analytics and Knowledge - Kyoto, Japan
Duration: 18 Mar 202422 Mar 2024

Publication series

SeriesACM International Conference Proceeding Series


Conference14th International Conference on Learning Analytics and Knowledge
Abbreviated titleLAK 2024
Internet address


  • affective computing
  • emotions in learning
  • focus groups
  • learning-centered affective states
  • online learning
  • participatory design
  • prototype evaluation
  • system usability


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