Solving instructional design dilemma's to develop a Video Enhanced Rubric with modeling examples to support mental model development of complex skills: The Viewbrics-project use case

Kevin Ackermans*, Ellen Rusman, Saskia Brand - Gruwel, Marcus Specht

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


For learners, it can be difficult to imagine how to perform a complex skill based on textual information from solely a text-based analytic rubric. Rubrics lack (1) the contextual information needed to convey real-world attributes (2) the dynamic information (such as gesturing in the complex skill of presenting) (3) the procedural information required to support the automation of constituent skills. We propose to address the text-based rubric’s deficiencies by adding video-modeling examples, self-explanation prompts, an intertwined educational- and instructional narrative, natural segmentation, and a non-verbal script. With the resulting Video Enhanced Rubric, we aim to improve the formative assessment of complex skills by fostering learner's mental model development, feedback quality, and complex skill mastery. Designing multimedia to support the formative assessment of complex skills using can cause dilemmas for instructional designers. For example, is learner control needed to foster intrinsic motivation or is it deemed to create extraneous cognitive load? Is it wise to use a video modeling example of peer-aged learners when the model does not display perfect performance? We found seven dilemmas around proven complex skill development, motivational design, and multimedia design guidelines. This paper presents a theoretical contribution to instructional design by introducing a framework to address dilemmas regarding such design dilemmas. As a practical contribution, we support educational researchers and practitioners by presenting six practical guidelines for designing a Video Enhanced Rubric. A use case of the Viewbrics-project provides insight into the practical application of the framework within the context of Dutch pre-university education.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)983-1002
Number of pages20
JournalEtr&D-Educational Technology Research and Development
Issue number4
Early online date10 May 2019
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2019



  • Video
  • Rubrics
  • Assessment (formative)
  • Complex skills
  • Mental models

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