Stakeholder perceptions on Community-Based Ecological Mangrove Restoration (CBEMR): a case study in Thailand

Papichaya Lhosupasirirat*, Farid Dahdouh-Guebas, Jean Hugé, Dominic Wodehouse, Jim Enright

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Mangroves are a unique ecosystem that provides various benefits to people. In Thailand, Mangrove Action Project (MAP) has introduced Community-Based Ecological Mangrove Restoration (CBEMR), a novel technique to restore degraded mangroves. Unlike conventional tree planting, CBEMR does not require a planting phase. It emphasizes preproject assessments of mangrove ecology and hydrology to facilitate natural regeneration. Therefore, this study aims to (1) investigate the perception of stakeholders on the value of mangroves; (2) examine the understanding of stakeholders on conventional mangrove planting and CBEMR as mangrove restoration techniques; (3) understand the challenges and motivations of the CBEMR efforts in the Andaman Coast of Southern Thailand. We use Q Methodology, a semi-quantitative method that requires participants to rank a set of statements to analyze their perceptions according to the research questions. As a result, we can identify three clusters of perceptions; D1 demands more CBEMR and less conventional planting. D2 believes mangrove planting is good, given suitable conditions. D3 thinks restoring mangroves brings benefits, but most conventional planting often fails. This study highlighted that all CBEMR stakeholders believe inadequate technical knowledge is the root cause of mismatch restoration practices. Mangrove planting should be done with suitable species, conditions, and areas. Conventional planting of mangroves without considering ecological factors and local engagement should be avoided as it fails to achieve sustainable outcomes. Enhancing knowledge of mangrove ecology and restoration techniques is therefore a sustainable route to the long-term success of mangrove restoration in Thailand.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere13894
Number of pages14
JournalRestoration Ecology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 14 Jul 2023


  • Q Methodology
  • Thailand
  • community-based management
  • ecological restoration
  • mangrove planting
  • stakeholder perceptions


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