Stigmas have been recognized throughout history and in all cultures. A stigma represents a form of negative deviance that taints the identity and reputation of a person who bears the mark. It labels the bearer as someone to be avoided. There are four major manifestations of stigma: (i) public stigma, (ii) self-stigma, (iii) stigma by association, and (iv) structural stigma. The authors present an analysis of how each manifestation of stigma is related to prosocial behavior or helping. Their analysis focuses on how perceived stigmas can affect the providing of help and on how they can affect stigmatized persons’ seeking help.
|Title of host publication||The Oxford Handbook of Prosocial Behavior|
|Editors||David A. Schroeder, William G. Graziano|
|Place of Publication||Oxford; New York|
|Publisher||Oxford University Press|
|Publication status||Published - May 2015|