Structural validity and invariance of the Feedback Perceptions Questionnaire

Jan Willem Strijbos*, R.J. Pat El, Susanne Narciss

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Despite a growing interest in instructional feedback, students’ feedback perceptions received limited attention. We examined the structural validity and measurement invariance of the Feedback Perceptions Questionnaire (FPQ). The FPQ measures feedback perceptions in terms of perceived fairness, usefulness, acceptance, willingness to improve, and affect. Secondary school students (N = 1486) received a fictional scenario containing Concise General Feedback or Elaborated Specific Feedback by a fictional peer. Students rated their perceptions as if they had received the feedback themselves. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) supports the structural validity of the FPQ and its invariance for the two types of peer feedback, gender, four grade-levels and two tracks. Perceived fairness of peer feedback was a strong positive predictor of willingness to improve and affect, whereas perceived usefulness and acceptance of peer feedback showed a more complex pattern in predicting willingness to improve and affect.
Original languageEnglish
Article number100980
Number of pages12
JournalStudies in Educational Evaluation
Issue number2021
Early online date23 Jan 2021
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2021


  • Feedback
  • Feedback perceptions
  • Confirmatory factor analysis
  • Structural validity
  • Measurement invariance
  • Structural equation modelling


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