Student-centered instruction: Inquiry-, problem-, project-, and case-based learning

Sofie M. M. Loyens, L. Wijnia, Remy M. J. P. Rikers

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingEntry for encyclopedia/dictionaryAcademic


The present chapter provides conceptual clarity on four different student-centered approaches commonly found in the research literature. Inquiry-based learning, problem-based learning, project-based learning, and case-based learning are successively discussed. Each of the instructional approaches is discussed in the light of the factors that Barrows (1986) put forward: 1) the design of the problem, project, case, question, 2) the level of student/teacher centeredness, and 3) the sequence in which information is acquired. In addition, Team-based and Challenge-based learning are briefly touched upon. Finally, directions for future research are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationInternational Encyclopedia of Education
EditorsR. J. Tierney, F. Rizvi, K. Erkican
Number of pages11
ISBN (Electronic)9780128186299
ISBN (Print)9780128186305
Publication statusPublished - 28 Oct 2022


  • Case-based learning
  • Conceptual clarity
  • Inquiry-based learning
  • Problem-based learning
  • Project-based learning


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