Temporal issues in e-learning research: A literature review

Elena Barbera, Begona Gros, Paul A. Kirschner

    Research output: Contribution to journalLiterature reviewAcademicpeer-review

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    Time is a critical factor in learning, but time is also a very complicated factor that has many facets. Time can be as follows: time needed to prepare a course or lesson (ie, for the instructor to gather materials and design/develop a course or lesson), time needed to follow a course or lesson (ie, the planned, nominal study time that the institution allots for the learner in minutes and/or hours per day or the number of weeks per semester/year that the course encompasses), lifetime of a course (ie, how long a course can be used before it needs to be revised and/or is out of date), time that a student needs for study (ie, both in and out of class), time that an instructor needs and/or uses to teach a course (ie, the number of hours per day both during and beyond the “school” day for preparation, correction, feedback and marking of products and exams), “transaction” time costs (eg, the amount of travel time needed to attend a course or to log into an online course) and even time that a learner can make effective use of the knowledge gained (ie, half-life of the information in a course). Time can also be seen as an effectiveness factor (ie, the amount learned in a specific time period; learning more in the same time period is more effective learning) and/or efficiency factor (ie, the amount of time needed to learn something; learning the same amount in less time is more efficient learning). Time can, finally, be seen as a solitary factor or as part of a temporal pattern inwhich other factors play a role such aswork time, family time, down time, etc.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)E53-E55
    Number of pages20
    JournalBritish Journal of Educational Technology
    Issue number2
    Early online date20 Feb 2012
    Publication statusPublished - Mar 2012


    • Time
    • Learning
    • e-learning
    • teaching and learning
    • educational management and policies
    • technological learning resources


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