Ten Steps to Complex Learning: A New Approach to Instruction and Instructional Design

Paul Kirschner, Jeroen J.G. van Merriënboer

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    The subject of this chapter, ten steps to complex learning (van Merriënboer & Kirschner, 2007), was recently published as a practical and modified version of the four-component instructional design (4C-ID) model originally posited by van Merriënboer in 1997. These ten steps are mainly prescriptive and aim to provide a practicable version of the 4C-ID model for teachers, domain experts involved in educational and/or training design, and less experienced instructional designers. The model described will typically be used to develop educational or training programs aimed at the acquisition of complex cognitive skills (in this chapter referred to as complex learning) which can have a duration ranging from several weeks to several years.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publication21st Century Education
    Subtitle of host publicationA Reference Handbook
    EditorsThomas L. Good
    Place of PublicationLondon
    PublisherSAGE Publications Ltd
    Number of pages10
    ISBN (Electronic)9781452265995
    ISBN (Print)9781412950114
    Publication statusPublished - 2008


    • Four-component instructional design (4C-ID)
    • Instructional design
    • Ten steps to complex learning
    • Complex cognitive skills


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