The Consumption of Breakfast, Fish and/or Caffeine does not Predict Study Progress in Adult Distance Education

Jérôme Gijselaers*, Paul A. Kirschner, Renate De Groot

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    111 Downloads (Pure)


    Consumption of breakfast, fish or caffeine are each separately often investigated in relation to learning performance in traditional education, but not in distance education (DE). The objective of this study was to investigate whether the relations between the consumption of breakfast, fish and/or caffeine on the one hand and learning performance on the other are also found in DE students. This population is different from traditional students and characterized by a different profile in terms of age, personal and work responsibilities as well as other demographics. In an observational longitudinal study, the consumption of breakfast, fish and caffeine of 1157 DE students (18-76 years old) was used to predict learning performance using multiple regression analysis. In an online digital survey, students provided information about their consumption of these nutritional measures and on important covariates. Learning performance, measured as study progress (i.e., the number of successfully completed modules) was evaluated objectively after 14 months. Results showed that adding the consumption of breakfast, fish and caffeine to the covariate model did not fit the data better, χ2 (3, N = 1155) = 3.287, p = .35. This means that neither the consumption of breakfast nor fish nor caffeine predicted study progress in adults participating in DE. This study is important as it is the first to report on these relations in this specific age group and educational setting, which is increasingly important due to the increased preference for this type of education.
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalInternational Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research
    Publication statusPublished - 6 Oct 2016


    • The ALOUD study
    • Nutrition
    • Distance learning
    • Online learning
    • Learning performance
    • Omega-3 fatty acids


    Dive into the research topics of 'The Consumption of Breakfast, Fish and/or Caffeine does not Predict Study Progress in Adult Distance Education'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this