The diagnosing behaviour of intelligent tutoring systems

Renate van der Bent, J.T. Jeuring, B.J. Heeren

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Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) determine the quality of student responses by means of a diagnostic process, and use this information for providing feedback and determining a student’s progress. This paper studies how ITSs diagnose student responses. In a systematic literature review we compare the diagnostic processes of 40 ITSs in various domains. We investigate what kinds of diagnoses are performed and how they are obtained, and how the processes compare across domains. The analysis identifies eight aspects that ITSs diagnose: correctness, difference, redundancy, type of error, common error, order, preference, and time. All ITSs diagnose correctness of a step. Mathematics tutors diagnose common errors more often than programming tutors, and programming tutors diagnose type of error more often than mathematics tutors. We discuss a general model for representing diagnostic processes.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationTransforming Learning with Meaningful Technologies
Subtitle of host publication14th European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning, EC-TEL 2019, Delft, The Netherlands, September 16–19, 2019, Proceedings
EditorsMaren Scheffel, Julien Broisin, Viktoria Pammer-Schindler, Andri Ioannou, Jan Schneider
Place of PublicationCham
Number of pages15
ISBN (Electronic)9783030297367
ISBN (Print)9783030297350
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2019
Event14th European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning: Transforming Learning With Meaningful Technologies - The Leiden-Delft-Erasmus Center for Education and Learning , Delft, Netherlands
Duration: 16 Sept 201919 Sept 2019
Conference number: 2019

Publication series

SeriesScience of Computer Programming


Conference14th European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning
Abbreviated titleEC-TEL 2019
Internet address


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