The effect of learner autonomy on motor learning: An empirical study in Dutch vocational education

Arnoud Katz, Wim Westera

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


    This study investigated how student autonomy in physical education can
    be enhanced without producing adverse effects. A sample of 150
    students from Dutch preparatory vocational education was divided into
    four groups subjected to different levels of autonomy during a physical
    education lesson. The autonomy conditions varied from teacher-led
    lessons to student-led task strategy selection, self-monitoring of task
    execution with video-based self-feedback and self-assessment of
    performance. Students in the autonomy conditions showed significantly
    higher motor performance than students in the teacher-led condition.
    Also, video-based self-feedback led to increased motor learning as
    compared to video-based teacher-led feedback. Students’ self-
    assessment scores of exercise performance were found to converge very
    well with the scores assigned by the teachers. Finally, it was established
    that high performers benefited more from enhanced autonomy than low
    performers. Motivation was found to be high in all conditions, revealing
    no significant differences.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)22-38
    Number of pages17
    JournalInternational Journal of Self-Directed Learning
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - 21 Oct 2019


    • physical education
    • autonomy
    • motor learning
    • Vocational Education
    • video-based self-feedback


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