The risk of being shot at

Stress, cortisol secretion, and their impact on memory and perceived learning during reality-based practice for armed officers

J. Taverniers, Tom Smeets, J. Van Ruysseveldt, J. Syroit, J. Von Grumbkow

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    Abstract

    A field experiment was organized during a handgun shooting workshop for armed officers (N = 36). In-depth stress analyses involved anticipatory distress, subjective stress, and salivary cortisol reactivity triggered by reality-based handgun shooting practice and, more specifically, by being in an uncontrollable situation with the risk of being shot at. Subsequently, the study examined to what extent exposure to reality-based stress affected working memory performances and self-perceived active learning. As expected, the risk of being shot at caused more anticipatory distress, subjective stress, and increasingly triggered cortisol secretion. Further results showed that, although stress endurance deteriorated working memory performance, participants in the high-realism group simultaneously self-perceivably learned more (i.e., acquired task-relevant skills and competencies). The dual stress effect may result from the professional appreciation of reality-based practice and increased self-efficacy toward hazardous real-life situations. Balancing the intersection between occupational psychology, cognitive psychology, and psychoneuroendocrinology, this study performed stress research in an important and rarely accessible professional setting.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)113-132
    Number of pages20
    JournalInternational Journal of Stress Management
    Volume18
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - May 2011

    Fingerprint

    Short-Term Memory
    Hydrocortisone
    Learning
    Psychology
    Problem-Based Learning
    Self Efficacy
    learning
    Education
    occupational psychology
    Research
    endurance
    life situation
    Practice (Psychology)
    Cortisol
    realism
    performance
    self-efficacy
    psychology
    experiment
    Group

    Keywords

    • active learning
    • digit span test
    • glucocorticoids
    • NASA TLX
    • working memory

    Cite this

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    title = "The risk of being shot at: Stress, cortisol secretion, and their impact on memory and perceived learning during reality-based practice for armed officers",
    abstract = "A field experiment was organized during a handgun shooting workshop for armed officers (N = 36). In-depth stress analyses involved anticipatory distress, subjective stress, and salivary cortisol reactivity triggered by reality-based handgun shooting practice and, more specifically, by being in an uncontrollable situation with the risk of being shot at. Subsequently, the study examined to what extent exposure to reality-based stress affected working memory performances and self-perceived active learning. As expected, the risk of being shot at caused more anticipatory distress, subjective stress, and increasingly triggered cortisol secretion. Further results showed that, although stress endurance deteriorated working memory performance, participants in the high-realism group simultaneously self-perceivably learned more (i.e., acquired task-relevant skills and competencies). The dual stress effect may result from the professional appreciation of reality-based practice and increased self-efficacy toward hazardous real-life situations. Balancing the intersection between occupational psychology, cognitive psychology, and psychoneuroendocrinology, this study performed stress research in an important and rarely accessible professional setting.",
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