The Testing Effect for Learning Principles and Procedures from Texts

Kim Dirkx, Liesbeth Kester, Paul A. Kirschner

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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    The authors explored whether a testing effect occurs not only for retention of facts but also for application of principles and procedures. For that purpose, 38 high school students either repeatedly studied a text on probability calculations or studied the text, took a test on the content, restudied the text, and finally took the test a second time. Results show that testing not only leads to better retention of facts than restudying, but also to better application of acquired knowledge (i.e., principles and procedures) in high school statistics. In other words, testing seems not only to benefit fact retention, but also positively affects deeper learning.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)357-364
    Number of pages8
    JournalThe Journal of Educational Research
    Issue number5
    Early online date5 Mar 2014
    Publication statusPublished - 3 Sep 2014


    • testing-effect
    • application
    • mathematics
    • retention


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