Timing of cueing in complex problem-solving tasks: Learner versus system control

Hans Hummel*, Fred Paas, Rob Koper

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


    Task-specific cueing formats that promote the automation and construction of problemsolving schemas should ideally be presented just in time to students learning to solve complex problems. This article reports experimental work comparing learner-controlled cueing, system-controlled cueing, and no cueing among 34 sophomore law students in a multimedia practical aimed at learning to prepare and hold a plea in court. The cueing consisted of a combination of process worksheets (PW) and worked out examples (WOE). Our main hypotheses that participants with cueing would outperform those without cueing and that participants with learner-controlled cueing would outperform those with system-controlled cueing were partly confirmed by the learning and transfer outcomes on a training and transfer task. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)191-205
    Number of pages15
    JournalComputers in Human Behavior
    Issue number2
    Early online date29 Sep 2004
    Publication statusPublished - Mar 2006


    • Cueing
    • Learner control
    • Timing
    • Schema
    • Complex problem solving tasks
    • Multimedia


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