Towards a learning path specification

José Janssen, Adriana Berlanga, Hubert Vogten, Rob Koper

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    Flexible lifelong learning requires comparability and exchangeability of courses, programmes and other types of learning actions both in a national and international context. This paper argues that in order to achieve comparability and exchangeability a uniform and meaningful way to describe learning paths towards attainment of learning outcomes is needed. The paper identifies the requirements for a learning path specification drawing on a study of literature in the field of curriculum design and lifelong learning, and lessons learned from recent initiatives which aimed to enhance comparability and exchangeability of learning actions. Two existing specifications designed to describe learning programmes, XCRI and IMS-LD, are investigated to see whether they can fulfil the identified requirements. The fact that IMS-LD has a generic way to define completion of learning paths and its constituent parts as well as an expression language to describe all kinds of conditions make IMS-LD a more likely candidate. A learning path model is presented identifying the main elements of a learning path specification and mapping them onto IMS-LD.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)77-97
    Number of pages21
    JournalInternational Journal of Continuing Engineering Education and Life-Long Learning
    Issue number1
    Early online date5 Dec 2007
    Publication statusPublished - 2008


    • learning path specification
    • lifelong learning
    • metadata
    • IMS-LD
    • XCRI


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