Translating Learning into Numbers: A Generic Framework for Learning Analytics

Wolfgang Greller*, Hendrik Drachsler

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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    With the increase in available educational data, it is expected that Learning Analytics will become a powerful means to inform and support learners, teachers and their institutions in better understanding and predicting personal learning needs and performance. However, the processes and requirements behind the beneficial application of Learning and Knowledge Analytics as well as the consequences for learning and teaching are still far from being understood. In this paper, we explore the key dimensions of Learning Analytics (LA), the critical problem zones, and some potential dangers to the beneficial exploitation of educational data. We propose and discuss a generic design framework that can act as a useful guide for setting up Learning Analytics services in support of educational practice and learner guidance, in quality assurance, curriculum development, and in improving teacher effectiveness and efficiency. Furthermore, the presented article intends to inform about soft barriers and limitations of Learning Analytics. We identify the required skills and competences that make meaningful use of Learning Analytics data possible to overcome gaps in interpretation literacy among educational stakeholders. We also discuss privacy and ethical issues and suggest ways in which these issues can be addressed through policy guidelines and best practice examples
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)42-57
    Number of pages16
    JournalEducational Technology & Society
    Issue number3
    Publication statusPublished - Jul 2012


    • Learning Analytics
    • Framework
    • Educational data mining
    • ethics
    • Domain design
    • Data for learning


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