This study contributes to current self-efficacy research in two ways. First, it responds to the need for more context- and competency-specific self-efficacy research by expanding the research field to the context of role-play simulations and focusing on the outcome of self-efficacy in negotiating. Second, aiming to investigate sources of self-efficacy and their interplay, the study addresses the need for more in-depth qualitative research by conducting a single holistic case study with a longitudinal design. Moreover, the study focuses on outcomes of an increase or decrease in self-efficacy over time. Data were collected during a four-day European Union simulation. Three data sources – diaries, interviews, and semi-structured observations and field notes – contributed to data convergence, ensuring that more than a single source of evidence supported findings. Four students were selected using maximum variation sampling. The final sample of 27 meaningful events – about the development of self-efficacy in negotiating – were selected by within-case sampling based on a set of inclusion criteria. Data were analyzed by means of content analysis. Three groups of sources of self-efficacy could be defined: personal sources, social sources, and contextual sources, which encompassed and enriched the four previously hypothesized sources of self-efficacy. With regard to the interplay of sources, five main pathways could be defined. Personal sources were present in all pathways. The contribution of social sources to an increase in self-efficacy was more obvious than its role in a decrease in self-efficacy. The contribution of the contextual source to the development of self-efficacy in negotiating was generally less prominent.
- Case study
- Higher education
- STUDENTS ACADEMIC-PERFORMANCE
- Sources of self-efficacy