Eye movement modeling examples (EMMEs) are instructional videos (e.g., tutorials) that visualize another person’s gaze location while they demonstrate how to perform a task. This systematic literature review provides a detailed overview of studies on the effects of EMME to foster observers’ performance and learning and highlights their differences in EMME designs. Through a broad, systematic search on four relevant databases, we identified 72 EMME studies (78 experiments). First, we created an overview of the different study backgrounds. Studies most often taught tasks from the domains of sports/physical education, medicine, aviation, and STEM areas and had different rationales for displaying EMME. Next, we outlined how studies differed in terms of participant characteristics, task types, and the design of the EMME materials, which makes it hard to infer how these differences affect performance and learning. Third, we concluded that the vast majority of the experiments showed at least some positive effects of EMME during learning, on tests directly after learning, and tests after a delay. Finally, our results provide a first indication of which EMME characteristics may positively influence learning. Future research should start to more systematically examine the effects of specific EMME design choices for specific participant populations and task types.
- Attention guidance
- Eye movement modeling examples
- Instructional design
- Systematic review