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Bijker, M. M. (2011). IMTO, de Onderzoekscompetentie: historie, achtergronden en de perceptie van de student. In E. Bakker, W. Giesbertz, J. Von Grumbkow, & T. Houtmans (Red.), Ontwikkeling van de onderzoekscompetentie aan de Open Universiteit (pp. 81-108). Heerlen: Open Universiteit, Faculteit Psychologie.
This paper reports on a new self-report, Likert-scaled instrument that was designed to assess motivation and use of learning strategies by college students. The motivation scales tap into three broad areas: (1) value (intrinsic and extrinsic goal orientation, task value), (2) expectancy (control beliefs about learning, self-efficacy); and (3) affect (test anxiety). The learning strategies section is comprised of nine scales which can be distinguished as cognitive, metacognitive, and resource management strategies. The cognitive strategies scales include (a) rehearsal, (b) elaboration, (c) organization, and (d) critical thinking. Metacognitive strategies are assessed by one large scale that includes planning, monitoring, and regulating strategies. Resource management strategies include (a) managing time and study environment; (b) effort management, (c) peer learning, and (d) help-seeking. Scale reliabilities are robust, and confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated good factor structure. In addition, the instrument shows reasonable predictive validity to the actual course performance of students.
SUMMARY In this article the popularity of the concept of competence in higher vocation- al education is explained and the most important issues in this field are dis- cussed. In particular, the vagueness of the term and the problems in defining job and training profiles are explained. Then the design of competence-based education is discussed. The paper ends by mentioning some subjects that are relevant to the future of competence-based education. Competence-based education is a catch-all word concealing many different forms of education. It is mostly used for individual courses and much less for curricula although, seen from the point of view of competence, this could be the most interesting level. Research into the effectiveness - and content - of competence-based education is sparse and it is important to subject the claims of competence-based advocates to further investigation. 1.Background to the popularity of the term competence
Knowledge, although seemingly available, is often not used for problem solving. That means it remains "inert." Three types of explanations exist for this phenomenon. Metaprocess explanations assume that the relevant knowledge is available, but it is not used because of disturbed access processes (e.g., lacking metacognitive control). Structure deficit explanations suppose that the deficit is rooted in the structure of the knowledge itself (i.e., the knowledge is not available in a form that allows for its application). In situatedness explanations, the traditional concepts of knowledge and transfer are questioned. One basic assumption of this perspective is that knowledge is fundamentally situated (i.e., context-bound). In the last decade, instructional models have been developed that try to remedy the inert knowledge problem and take into account important aspects that have been raised by the different explanations.
In an earlier study we found that intermediate experts in the domain of economics did not surpass novices in complex learning and knowledge application with a computer-based business simulation. In the present study, it was investigated whether these contra-intuitive findings can be replicated. In order to scrutinize the reasons which led to these findings, some parameters of the learning environment were changed. The duration of the exploration phase and of the problem-solving phase as well as the complexity of the situations were increased, motivation and acquired declarative knowledge were assessed. In view of mastering recurring demands and the functionality of mental models, no differences were found between a group of novices (15 students of humanities with a supplementary training in economics) and a group of intermediate experts (13 advanced students of economics). The findings of the original study were replicated, motivation had no effect on the result. In terms of declarative knowledge, the novices turned out to be even better.
Traditionally, Cognitive Load Theory (CLT) has focused on instructional methods to decrease extraneous cognitive load so that available cognitive resources can be fully devoted to learning. This article strengthens the cognitive base of CLT by linking cognitive processes to the processes used by biological evolution. The article discusses recent developments in CLT related to the current view in instructional design that real-life tasks should be the driving force for complex learning. First, the complexity, or intrinsic cognitive load, of such tasks is often high so that new methods are needed to manage cognitive load. Second, complex learning is a lengthy process requiring learners motivational states and levels of expertise development to be taken into account. Third, this perspective requires more advanced methods to measure expertise and cognitive load so that instruction can be flexibly adapted to individual learners needs. Experimental studies are reviewed to illustrate these recent developments. Guidelines for future research are provided.
Recent developments in competence-based education have motivated institutions of vocational education and training (VET) to
improve the links or connectivity between learning in school and learning in the workplace, which has been a problem for decades.
In previous research, a theoretical framework describing the underlying aspects of competence-based education was developed.
In this study, three aspects of this framework were used to analyse connectivity between learning in school and learning in
the workplace. These aspects were: i) authenticity, ii) selfresponsibility, and iii) the role of the teacher as expert and
coach. Three stakeholder groups (i.e., students, teachers, and workplace training supervisors) involved in secondary VET programs
in the field of life sciences in the Netherlands were questioned on these aspects. Based on their interviews, it is concluded
that these aspects provide information about the process of connectivity. Because stakeholder groups hold different conceptions
of workplace learning and often do not communicate adequately about mutual responsibilities, the implementation of these aspects
of competence-based education has not significantly improved the connectivity situation. Nevertheless, these aspects of competence-based
education can guide stakeholder groups in making clearer agreements about mutual responsibilities, which may improve connectivity
in the future.
KeywordsCompetence-based education-Workplace learning-Connectivity-Life sciences
Cognitive load theory has been designed to provide guidelines intended to assist in the presentation of information in a manner that encourages learner activities that optimize intellectual performance. The theory assumes a limited capacity working memory that includes partially independent subcomponents to deal with auditory/verbal material and visual/2- or 3-dimensional information as well as an effectively unlimited long-term memory, holding schemas that vary in their degree of automation. These structures and functions of human cognitive architecture have been used to design a variety of novel instructional procedures based on the assumption that working memory load should be reduced and schema construction encouraged. This paper reviews the theory and the instructional designs generated by it.
Universities do not come up to a growing demand for practice oriented research and for students trained in this type of activity. Existing methodology mainly is theory oriented. We in large part miss methodology for producing prescriptive knowledge, for a holistic approach and for design oriented research. As to the education of students in research methodology, besides the deficiencies just mentioned, too much attention is given to data analysis and statistics. As a consequence designing research is underexposed. Students should learn to analyse the problem to be solved, translating it into adequate research questions, making a taxonomy of the main concepts and making them operational, reducing the research to a feasible size, and developing a detailed and efficient plan for the generation of the research material. All this is far more complex for a beginning researcher than generally is understood.
The goal of Social Groups in Action and Interaction is to review and analyze the human group as it operates to create both social good and, potentially, social harm. The book provides relatively equal emphasis on topics traditionally considered from an intra-group perspective (for instance, conformity, minority influence, group decision-making, leadership, and task performance) as well as topics derived from an inter-group perspective (e.g. social categorization, social identity, intergroup conflict, stereotyping, prejudice and discrimination). In addition, topics that are not unique to either of these two approaches, and yet which are important aspects of group relations, such as culture, crowd behavior, social representations, and negotiation are also covered.
A correlational study examined relationships between motivational orientation, self-regulated learning, and classroom academic performance for 173 seventh graders from eight science and seven English classes. A self-report measure of student self-efficacy, intrinsic value, test anxiety, self-regulation, and use of learning strategies was administered, and performance data were obtained from work on classroom assignments. Self-efficacy and intrinsic value were positively related to cognitive engagement and performance. Regression analyses revealed that, depending on the outcome measure, self-regulation, self-efficacy, and test anxiety emerged as the best predictors of performance. Intrinsic value did not have a direct influence on performance but was strongly related to self-regulation and cognitive strategy use, regardless of prior achievement level. The implications of individual differences in motivational orientation for cognitive engagement and self-regulation in the classroom are discussed.
Building on and extending existing research, this article proposes a 4-phase model of interest development. The model describes 4 phases in the development and deepening of learner interest: triggered situational interest, maintained situational interest, emerging (less-developed) individual interest, and well-developed individual interest. Affective as well as cognitive factors are considered. Educational implications of the proposed model are identified.
This article discusses the research on the relations between achievement goals and develops a conceptual model based on a review of extant literature. The model distinguishes between moods and emotions and the relative roles of perceived classroom goal structures and personal goals. In this article, it is suggested that the relation between achievement goals and affect is asymmetrical and bidirectional. However, given differences in the conceptualization and measurement of affect, the empirical findings are somewhat inconsistent and difficult to interpret in some studies. Thus, there is a clear need for more research on the dynamics of achievement goals and affect in classroom settings.
In this chapter, the author reviews research on the development of personal expertise in diverse areas of functioning, such as music, writing, and sport, with particular attention to the role of self-regulatory processes and supportive self-motivational beliefs. Expertise involves self-regulating three personal elements: one's covert cognitive and affective processes, behavioral performance, and environmental setting. These triadic elements are self-regulated during three cyclical phases: forethought, performance, and self-reflection. Then the author discusses research on phase differences in self-regulatory processes and motivational beliefs of novices and experts, and finally, the author describes the development of expertise through multi-phase self-regulation training. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Offers a revised and updated theory of the research training environment (RTE) in graduate education in professional psychology. Ingredients of the RTE that are theorized to enhance students' research attitudes and eventual productivity are proposed. Six primary ingredients have been supported by research as "main effects." Two additional ingredients suggest "aptitude by treatment interactions" in that they appear to interact with personality and training level variables in affecting research attitudes and productivity. Attention to these ingredients of RTEs will permit a sound test of the ultimate value of the scientist side of the scientist-practioner model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The research on worked examples has shown thatfor novices, studying worked examples is oftena more effective and efficient way of learningthan solving conventional problems. Thistheoretical paper argues that addingprocess-oriented information to worked examplescan further enhance transfer performance,especially for complex cognitive skills withmultiple possible solution paths.Process-oriented information refers to theprincipled (``why'''') and strategic (``how'''')information that experts use when solvingproblems. From a cognitive load perspective,studying the expert''s ``why'''' and ``how''''information can be seen as constituting agermane cognitive load, which can fosterstudents'' understanding of the principles of adomain and the rationale behind the selectedoperators, and their knowledge about howexperts select a strategy, respectively. Issueswith regard to the design, implementation, andassessment of effects of process-orientedworked examples are discussed, as well as thequestions they raise for future research.
Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Inter-Library Loan. Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Inter-Library Loan. There is an increasing emphasis in teaching, to develop students' capacity to think statistically. Thus, my thesis was undertaken to make explicit, and to document, the reasoning and thinking processes used by students and statisticians in applied statistics. It is an investigation into the nature of statistical thinking in the broad problem solving domain from problem formulation to conclusions. The research is based around four exploratory studies. In the first two studies statistics students were given tasks ranging from textbook-type questions to newspaper articles. The third and fourth studies involved interviewing professional statisticians and undergraduate statistics students about their approach to statistical problem solving in projects they had undertaken. Data were collected through recorded interviews. A qualitative research approach was used in each of the four exploratory studies and involved an ongoing analysis and interpretation of the data. Some of the qualitative data were analysed using software to aid the extraction of common themes. Other researcher and interviewee corroboration of the findings were used where possible. From this research I have posited a four-dimensional statistical thinking framework for empirical enquiry. The dimensions are: the investigative cycle; the interrogative cycle; types of thinking; and dispositions. An inherently statistical way of thinking was identified as 'transnumeration' (a coined word). Other specifically statistical ways of thinking, such as taking variation into account, and the synthesising of context and subject knowledge, were found. These corroborated with other literature sources and therefore this thesis elaborates and extends this knowledge base with particular regard to the role of explanation or causation. Dispositions necessary for good statistical thinking are discussed in relation to statistics. An interrogative cycle has been created to explain how the identified generic thinking skills are specifically used in statistical thinking. Other types of thinking identified have been categorised as reasoning with models, strategic thinking and using techniques. From all these elements a comprehensive grounded theory on the nature of statistical thinking in the broad problem solving domain has been developed from the data and literature. The implications arising from this theory for teaching are discussed, together with possible solutions based on the development of thinking tools.
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